TWO NATION THEORY
Jinnah was not first to call the Muslims of India a nation, before him had sir syed Ahmed khan addressed them as a “qaum”. An Urdu word which can be paraphrased as “nation”. The Agha khan, Amir Ali and other often referred to their community as “nation”. And But it was Jinnah who for the first time, distinct nations. Hindus and Muslims, which could not live as
one state. Thus the two nation theory initiated by Sir Syed Ahmed khan and further expounded by Muhammad Ali Jinnah and his colleagues, became the future of the Muslims of India. It final came to he announced on the eve of Pakistan resolution and culminated in the making of Pakistan,
an independent state for the Indian mohammendans.
THE THEORY ENUNCIATED:
The most clear and emphatic exposition of the theory is to be found in statements and speeches of Jinnah. He was the main expounder of the theory who made most of the Muslim and even some Hindus to believe in the truth of two nation theory.
Jinnah said, Hindus and Muslims represented two different and distinct separated civilizations and in fact as different and distinct from one another in origin, traditions, and manners of life as were the different European nations. In India there was a major and minor nation and a
parliamentary system based on principle of majority rule must inevitable mean the rule of the major nation. Therefore. Jinnah demanded the British government to evolve such a constitution that recognizes the fact there were two nations in India, both of whom must share the government. Jinnah made it clear that Muslims of India were by no means a minority but a solid and distinct nation.
The resolution demanded the partition of the sub-continent, explains the theory in detail. Jinnah in his presidential address at Lahore said,
Nationalism, which are as divergent today as ever, cannot at any time he
expected to, Transform themselves into one nation Merely, by subjection them to democratic consolidation and holding them forcibly together of British parliamentary statute.
The problem of India is not inter-communal but it is international one and it must be treated as such, Hindus and Muslims belonged to two different realism of religion, philosophy, history, social norms and moral standards, language and literature and such diversity could never merge into unity.
Quaid-e-Azam therefore, made in clear to the British, if she was really sincere to secure the peace and happiness of India, it should allow the major nations separate homeland by driving India into autonomous national states. Jinnah declared it many times. Muslims are a nation according to any definition of a nation and they must have their homeland,
their territory and their state… To the Hindus objection, that the Muslims were mere invaders and outside and had thus no territory right to India, Jinnah replied logically that if Muslims were invaders, so were the Aryans (Hindus). They were not the heirs of indie.
Not only Jinnah and Muslims were convinced to the two nation theory,
but there are several other external evidences of the genuineness of the claim,
1) India is a land of nation.(B.K krishna-1939)
2) The reality is that Muslim population in India. Some 90 millions, with its own system of law and social organization. It’s won distinct language, its own historical traditions proves to be a separate nation,(Economist 1946)
THE SEPARATE ELECTORATES: MANDATE OF THE TWO NATION THEORY:
The demand of separate electorate was a manifestation of Muslim feeling of separateness and the announcement of two nation theory. The raisin desire of separate electorates was an affirmation to the cause of separate homeland.
Sir Syed Ahmed khan, for the first time demanded separate electorate for Muslims when not a single member from Muslims had been recommended for the council of united provinces in 1892 elections. The argument of 1906 simla deputation was also the same. The demand of separate electorates was based on three grounds.
a) Since, Muslims were in to province, it was difficult for a Muslim candidate to be elected in the general elections owing to the existing state of tension between Hindus and Muslims.
b) If, the two communities were not separate at the polls, every election would result in communal riots.
c) Wherever the system of separate electorate had been introduced. It worked were and recurred peace.
Muslims were given the right of separate electorate on the basis of there separate density in the British Indian polity in minto – Morley (1909)reforms which were highly concerned by the in “cyclone” where they were in minority, to safeguard their interests. But they resisted the system in India to dominate the whole sub-continent, since they were in majority here. Thus Muslims gradually felt that they could not live together with Hindus under one political roof.
The weight age-two ration theory remained the sheet-anchor of Muslim league policy till the late thirties, after which the faith in the concept of separate electorates disappeared and Muslims launched their struggle for establishing a separate Muslim state, and that is why Pakistan was a corollary to the system of separate electorate.
CONGRESS AND TWO NATION THEORY:
Congress reaction towards the formula was irritating and by no means she could compromise with formula. The attitude of congress further activated the Muslims towards separatism.
The two nation theory acted as a soul in the body of Pakistan movement. Without the two nation theory, the Muslim political nationalism would have never scan the reality of the day.
SIR SYED AHMED KHAN:
The man who spoke first of the muslims as a “nation” in the modern
times was none other than sir Syed Ahmed in 1867, he said:
“I am convinced that both there nations will not join whole heartily in anything. at present there is no open hostility between the two nations. But on account of so called educated people it will increase in the future”
Analyzing on the demand of India national congress for introduction of parliamentary elections he said:
The proposals of congress are exceedingly expedient for a country which is inhabited by two different nations now suppose of the English leave India who would be the ruler of India is it possible under these circumstances that the two nations the Indians and the Muslims would sit on the same the one and remain equal in power certainly not it is necessary that one of them should surrender the other to Hope that would remain equal is to desire the impossible;
He was a great philosopher and political thinker he had studied Islam deeply and had a profound liking for the Islamic principals he compared the western culture with Islam and reached the conclusion that the welfare of mankind laid in the adoption of Islam as a way of life he awakened the Muslims of the subcontinent and asked them to struggle for a separate
homeland this he did through his poetry he said:
“I am fully convinced that the Muslims of India will ultimately have to establish A separate homeland or they cannot time with Hindus in united India“
Allama Iqblal openly negated the concept of one nation and emphasized on the separate national identity of Muslims he was against the separation of religion from polities. India is a continent of human beings belonging to different layout ages and religions. To base a constitution on the conception of homogeneous India is to prepared here for civil war. I, Therefore demand a separate Muslims state in the best interest of the Muslim of India and Islam.
The Allahabad address: of Allama Iqbal carries great importance in the freedom struggle of the Muslims of India. On his presidential address he classified the two nation theory and demanded for a separate homeland for the Indian Muslims: he said:
“i believe that the protection of separate identity is in the best interests of Hindus and the Muslims. Since the Muslim of the subcontinent is a separate nation with their distinct culture and religions values and they wanted to have a system of their own liking, they should be allowed to live under such a system in a separate state comprising of north western frontier province. Sindh, Punjab and Baluchistan”.
The spirit which Iqbal infused in the Muslims by his Allahabad address developed into an ideological basis for the Pakistan movement. The famous Pakistan resolution passed on March 23, 1940 at Lahore was in fact based on Allama Iqbal, presidential address of Allahabad.
Quaid-e-Azam gave practical shape to the ideology given and enunciated by Allama Iqbal. He was at last successful in convincing the Hindus and the British of the reality of the two nation theory and the Pakistan ideology. Jinnah, after entering into polities advocated Hindu – Muslim unity. He wanted to get rid of the British rule through the saint effort of Hindus
and Muslims. Thus he same to be known as the “ambassador of Hindu – Muslim unity” luck now pact became possible for his sincere acts in (1916) but later on he was greatly disappointed by the prejudicial a attitude of Hindus and congress towards Muslim.
Now Jinnah believed that congress will never recognize the right of Muslim. He said in the second round title conference (1931).
“i want to inform everybody openly the settled before the enforcement of any system of constitution. United you cannot provide guarantee for the safeguard of the Muslim interest, united you do not win their cooperation, any constitution you enforce shall nor last forever 24 hours.
Jinnah was a firm advocate of two nation theory on March 23, 1940, he said: “it has been taken mistaking that the Muslims are a minority. They are not a minority. They are a nation by all definitions. By all canons of international law we are a separate nation from Hindus” In 1942 he said:
“We are a nation with our district culture and civilization, language and literature, art good architecture names and nomenclature, sense of values, legal laws and moral codes, customs and calendars, history a traditions. In short we have our own district outlook on life and of life”
He further defined the two nation theory:
“The Muslims are a nation by every right to establish their separate homeland. They can adopt any means to promote and protect their economic, social, political and cultural interest”
In 1942 he said:
“Islam teacher’s equality, justices and fair play with everyone. We should base our democracy our principles and concept of Islam”
He said, on (1947) at is lslamia college Peshawar:
“We did not want Pakistan to have a piece of land simply but we wanted a laboratory where we could experiment the Islamic principles.
a) SIR SYED
b) ALLAMA IQBAL
FROM UNITY STANCE TO SEPARATISM:
Sir Syed Ahmed khan, Allama Iqbal and Muhammad Ali Jinnah are considered as the key personalities in the history of Muslim nationalism in the sub-continent. Sir Syed gave the idea of the two nation; Allama Iqbal dreamed a separate homeland for the Muslims on the reality. But the history is self evident of the facts that Syed, Iqbal and Jinnah originally, were not in favor of separatism but the coalitions were created in which they were forced to shift from unity stance to separatism let’s now see why muslim leaders changed their stance.
Sir Syed the pioneer of Aligarh movement is criticized by come Hindu historians an anti-Hindu or a marrow communalist in his outlook. This can be repatriated by the fact that, his efforts were directed toward the promotion and advancement of all his countrymen, with of course a special reference to the position of Muslims as they were the follow community. The translation society established at Ghazipur in 1864 which later on developed into Aligarh scientific society, whose object was translate European literature into under was being managed by Syed Ahmed’s lifelong friend. Raja kishan das similarly the prudish Indian association
established in 1866 with the object of keeping in touch with the member of the House of Commons was composed of both Hindus and Muslim. He was eventually not addressing his community whom at the migration of the British India association, he said:
The Indian (Hindus and Muslim) are loyal to the British The year 1867 is particularly significant in the life of Indian muslin. Syed Ahmed khan was
posted at Banaras when he sent a communication to the viceroy suggesting the establishment of a vernacular university and a bureau of translation to translate university and a books into Urdu. As counter proposal certain Hindu leaders of Banaras proposed that the Urdu language, written in Persian script should be discontinued in the government, courts and therefore should be replaced by hew language written in Devanagri script. It was the first occasion when, the felt that it was now impossible for the Hindus and the Muslims to progress as a single nation and for anyone to work for both of them. Simultaneously, he met the commissioner of Banaras
and discussed the problems of Muslim education. The British official was suppressed at the change and said. ”hitherto” you have always been keen about he welfare of Indians in general; this is the firs Occasion that I have heard about he progress of muslin alone.
Allama Iqbal was a poet and philosopher of India. He too was an ardent advocate of Indian nationalism and Hindu muslin unity in his early career. He was shifted from other stance in England during his study of western nationalism. The local political situation and Hindu Muslim rights left it impression over his mind. But the thing which transferred him
from a great exponent of Indian nationalism to the advocate of internationalism and pan. Islamizing was the modern nationalism, which has divided nations into warring group resulting into two world ward. His was a positive approach. He wanted to solve Hindu – Muslim, problem
for once and all. In his only career he did his utmost to integrate Indian nations. But time proved that his spiritual and dialogical as change as the exigency of the time. In 1909 when he was invited to Amritsar to attend a meeting of a cosmopolitan organization with he membership opened to the Hindus and the Muslim. Iqbal polity declined the invitation and in the course of correspondence that ensured he wrote:
Muhammad Ali Jinnah, who led the battle for the creation of Pakistan, was however quite a late concert to the creed of Pakistan nationalism. He strived for a ling item for a “modus Vivendi” between Hindu and Muslims in an undivided India. Hew was described by Mrs. Sarojai Naidu as the ambassador of Hindu Muslim unity: gopal k. Gokhle was a liberal
leader of Indian national congress who emphasized Hindu Muslim unity and under his influence Jinnah join Indian national congress in the hope to serve Indian Muslim and to bring the two communities into closer accord. From 1906 to 1920, when he left the congress, Jinnah stood for separate electorates into so much to strengthen the Muslim, separatist tendency, but
to bring them upon the economic and cultural level of the rest of the Indian. His efforts in the direction of Hindu Muslim efforts in the direction of Hindu Muslim unity were unquestioned.
Even when the relation between 1921 and 1928 to bring the Hindu Muslim, unity did not weaken. But the cumingness of the Nehru report and later events slowly and gradually transformed this ambassador of Hindu Muslim unity to an extreme concept of Muslim separation in India.
Already drained Jinnah could no longer witness his newly created state become mature. But the time he got from the lord was fully utilized by him to build Pakistan into a strong and organized stated where the Muslim of subcontinent could be according to the ideas of Islam. His, efforts to put the infant state on the path of stability and progress are uncountable.
His effort to enthuse people, steps for rehabilitation of refuges, endeavors to settle internal disputes and his maneuvers in diplomatic arena speak of his sagacity and iron will against all hazards.
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