Sir Syed demand for separate electorate was not made by the simla deputation for the first time. National elections on the basis of two nation theory were demanded by sir syed in a debate on the central provinces local self government bill in 1883. The demand for separate electorates, manifestation of muslim feelings of separateness, played a crucial role in the muslim politics of india , the acceptance of muslim demand for separate electorate in mintomorley reforms 1909 was a great victory a separate nation by the british. The separate the two-nation theory, and the two were responsible for the Pakistan resolution 1940 and finally for the creation of Pakistan.
S.E AND SIR SYED:
Muslims were not very enthusiastic about democratic reforms being introduction by self government 1861 as it could lead to complete domination by hindus as they were in majority.
All inidia national congress came into being in 1885 and demanded western type of democracy. Sir syed toe objectives of the congress and asked mulsim not to join the congress. He made muslims aware of the fact that policy of the congress would adversity affect them. In his beech of 1883 he demanded separate electorate for muslims and said, “the larger community would totally override the interests of the smaller community”. In1888, he said, “strength of hindus and muslims lie determined the council of viceroy.k hindus to elect their representatives thus sir syed was the pioneer of the concept of he separate nation, under this act.
SIMLA DEPUTATION AND S.E
Muslim delegation met the viceroy in simla on 1906 and presented the desires of the muslims. The demand of the separate electorate as the main theme. This demand of the muslims was practically implemented under the act of 1909 known as minto morley reforms. Congress refused to accept it. Muslims were undoubtedly accepted as a separate nation, under this act,
Muslim league and congress created an agreement at lucknow in 1916 the congress under the agreement accepted the idea of separate electorates for the muslim. It was a great political achievement as congress had reconciled with the idea of muslims as a separate reaction.
ACT OF INDIA 1919:
The constitutional reform under the act were based on the spirit of lucknow act. This act (montague Chelmsford reforms) kept intact the separate electorate for muslims of india. These reforms were the cause of cleavages between the hindus and the muslims.
Jinnah called the conference of muslim leaders in march 1927 at delhi. He proposed certain proposal after mutual consultation. At intact stage Jinnah was a staunch believer of hindu muslim unity. He asked the congress to accept the delhi proposals and muslims would be prepared to withdraw from their demand for separate electorates.
In order to face the challenge thrown by the british government in the wake of simon commission which was boycotted both by congress and muslim league, all parties’ conference at delhi appointed a committee to propose commonly accepted proposals for future constitutional reforms. This committee was leaded by motilal Nehru report out rightly rejected the concept of separate electorate as it amounted to political of india. Congress was not prepared ot accommodate the genuine of the muslims. So the muslims rejected Nehru report..
JINNAH’ 14 POINTS:
Jinnah was completely dismayed and disappointed by the Nehru report. He summoned meeting of all parties at the muslims in his famous fourteen points the demand of separate electorate was one of the major demands.
In 1930, british government held a round table conference of Indian leaders to resolve the political constitutional problem of india. In the light discussion. Which took place in the conference the british government announced formula to solve the communal problem of india. This formula is called communal award. This formula not only aware muslims the right
of the separate electorates but also other minorities like sikh, Christians and untouchable were also given this right.
SIGNIFICANCE OF SEPARTE ELECTORATE:
I. The day, the demand for separate electorate was conceded, the course for the muslim freedom movement was charted. It laid the foundation for the growth of muslim national consciousness which after a 40 year struggle was to achieve for the muslims the culmination of their aspiration as a distinct nation.
II. Two nation theory was advanced because the working of separate electorate for many years had made the muslims conscious of their distinctiveness.
III. Opening the era of optimize.
IV. Establishing muslim league.
V. Denial of separate electorate exposed hindu mentality.
VI. Muslim unity and 1945-46 elections on this principle a proof and a referendum for pakistan.
Had there been no separate electorate the muslim would have been absorbed and digested by the arrogant hindu ridden congres and hence there would be no muslim league no political consciousness and no Pakistan… There is no doubt the fact that the separate electorate is one of the significance of pakistan.
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