This article illustrates the role of Quaid-e-Azam in the Pakistan movement and as the first Governor-General of Pakistan. Pakistan Affairs Question: Had There Been No Jinnah, There Would Have Been No Pakistan?
Role of Quaid-e-Azam in Pakistan Movement
Speaking about the principle actions in the final act of transfer of power from the British to Indian’s H.Y Hudson, the author of perhaps the most authoritative British accounts of imperial retreat from India. ‘The great divide’ says that: ‘Of all the personalities in the last act of the great drama of India’s rebirth to independence, Muhammad ALI Jinnah is at once the most enigmatic and the most important; Leonard Mosley: even regards Pakistan as a one-man achievement.
Quaid-e-Azam’s Struggle for Pakistan
Quaid-e-Azam was not always a Quaid-e-Azam; Jinnah paid a heavy price to become Quaide- Azam. Jinnah whose true political career started when he joined the Muslim league in 1913, become politically a well-known figure by the episode of Lucknow ensuring gave a new shape to the events ensuring gave a new shape to the drama of politics in India. The slogan of Hindu – Muslim unity proved shot lives. The failure of the khilafat movement at the Nehru report classified the Muslim mind from the illusion of Hindu – Muslims unity. During this course of events, it was nobody but Jinnah who interposed his person by the dint of his initiative and courage. He became successful in defending the Muslim cause so gallantly those evil designs of Hindus points saved the Muslims from the octopus of the congress.
The most critical phase of the Muslim struggle in the sub-continent comes during the period 1937- 1947 when Quaid-e-Azam proved himself to ‘the real founder of Pakistan’. It was no one else than Jinnah who re-organized the Muslim league during the crucial period of Indian history (1937-1939).
They had not only lost the 1937 elections but also lost their morale. At this critical juncture, Jinnah resurrected the Muslim league like a phoenix from its ashes. Had there been no such reorganization the league would have seen the same fate in the 1945-46 general elections.
The historical situation during the 1937-47 decade presented and permitted or two alternative paths of development of Muslim politics i.e. either going along with the congress viewpoint or striking out an independent line.
These alternative paths were presented at least on seven different, but specific occasions- 1937, 1939,1940,1942,1945 and 1946. But on no accession did Jinnah waver, and each time he chose for himself and Muslims India the path towards establishing Muslims, religion political identity on a constitutional plane. The path concretized since 1940 in the Pakistan platform.
Starting from Jinnah’s presidential address, to the All Indian Muslim League at Lucknow session (1937), he always remained emphatic over the Muslim separatism and independent line of action for the league. Thus by the beginning of 1940, Muslim politics took a new and significant turn and departed from the pre-1937 policy.
Quaid-e-Azam Presidential Address on 23rd March 1940
Jinnah’s presidential address on March 22, 1940, at Lahore is a hallmark in the history of Muslim nationalism in India. He made the concept of the two-nation theory clear and outrightly rejected the idea of the Indian nation. The historic resolution that ensured his address, become the clarion call, as well as the morning star in the two hundred years dark night of the slavery of Indian Muslims. the mole which was roaming aimlessly in the desert of despondence started marching towards its destination under the leadership of a capable, brave, and upright leader indeed the great leader M.A Jinnah.
The Cripps’ proposal-a devise of British diplomacy to appease Indians and to get their cooperation in the 2nd world war against ‘axis powers’ was an evil design to counter the Muslim’s demand for a separate homeland. Nevertheless, non-accession clauses append the way for the partition of the country. The formation of Pakistan, as resolved in 1940, was dump by other clauses of the formula. It was Jinnah who perceived the mischievousness of the scheme and outrightly rejected the plan. It is true that Jinnah accepted the cabinet mission plan initially, but his acceptance, though genuinely sincere at the time, primarily motivated by the fact that the plan contained the seeds of Pakistan. The plan provided for a somewhat limited Muslim religion political identity in a nonfederal India with the prospects of Pakistan after a decade, if the proposed arrangement failed to work to the satisfaction of the Muslims.
It may be argued that the fateful decision to continue the boycott of the constituent assembly, after having got the Muslims league entrenched in the interim government in October 1946 was solely Jinnah. This decision led directly to his majesty’s government’s declarations of 6th Dec 1946, and of 20th Feb 1947 which paved the way for the partition. Not only in regard to this constituent assembly boycott decision but several other crucial decisions during the moments 1937-47 decade as well, Jinnah alone mattered, and Jinnah alone or for the most part determined
the cause. Muslim India and Muslim politics were to traverse.
3rd June plan of Lord Mountbatten and Radcliff award, no doubt, eclipsed the Muslims optimism of restoring their land by the right justification of numerical majority of the areas (esp. Bengal and Punjab) yet it was Jinnah’s sagacity to handle Mountbatten who had no intention to give Jinnah a Pakistan. The allegations against Jinnah’s accepting moth-eaten Pakistan can be refuted through the evidence on the record. in fact, Jinnah had not expediency other than to accept the offer, because a refusal of the offer must have amounted to be lingering on the process of transfer of power.
Indeed, even as late as June 1946 whatever the political forces and conditions at work likely and more imminent choice, and it was Jinnah alone who made the crucial decision that led Muslim India directly to Pakistan within a year that transformed the possibility of an independent Muslims homeland into actuality. Thus Jinnah’s person was crucial and critical in the making of Pakistan. The whole world acknowledged that had there been no Jinnah there would have been no Pakistan and the nation rightfully acclaimed him Quaid-e-Azam the great leader…..
Role of Quaid-e-Azam as Governor-General
The man who piloted the ship of the Muslim freedom movement and ultimately brought it to the shores of independence was not destined to live long after the realization of his age-long dream. His sagacious decision during the struggle for independence is uncountable. It is highly unfortunate for a man who dedicated all his life to transforming the dream of Iqbal into reality, to die after (shortly) realization of the poet’s dream. The freedom movement drained even the last once of the energy out of him. The Lord gave him slightly more than a year to look after the newly created stated. Due to precarious health, he could not dedicate all his time to build the fabric of the infant state. but in more than a year, in face of enormous problems, he did a lot for the consolidation of Pakistan.
The real assessment of his achievement as Governor-General can only be made if we go through briefly over the problems which were farced by Pakistan in its early year of independence.
Problems faced by Quaid-e-Azam after the creation of Pakistan
i. A part of the government record was destroyed during transit through Indian territory
ii. Personal for the government was yet to be assembled from various provinces.
iii. Lack of trained staff in govt. depts.
iv. Disorganization in the communal system.
- Riots in Punjab
- Economic constraints
But in spite of all these problems, Jinnah did a lot to extricate the infant state from unthinkable difficulties. He was successful to redress their problems turn by turn.
The revival of the Doornad Spirit
Quaid-e-Azam had realized that the morale of the public was at the lowest. He, therefore, decided to rehabilitate and restore the confidence and morale of the people. He delivered inspiring speeches that filled people with enthusiasm. His words made a profound impression on the public and mitigated the existing despair and tension.
His first step was to address the government servants in Karachi on Oct 11th, 1947; Quaid-Azam gave a clarion call to the assembled officials of civil and military bureaucracy. An extract of his speech gave a message to the audience.
“…this is a challenge to our very existence and if we are to survey as a nation me small here to five the problems with redoubled goal and energy. Our masses are today disorganized, their morale is exceeding low we shall, have to do something to put them out of this state and galvanize them into activity. All throw additional responsibility and government servants to who our people are looking for guidance”
His words revived the drooping spirits.
Removal of Military from Waziristan and Tribal Areas
The decision of reduction of force from Waziristan and tribal areas was amply justified by the events. this step earned a considerable increase in the tribal goodwill. Instead of heavy military expenditures, Pakistan concentrated on economic amelioration, the spread of education, and medical relief.
Steps to mitigate tensions with India
Jinnah’s government followed a policy of goodwill and friendliness towards India. The two PMs were able to establish personal support. Jinnah in an interview, with a Swiss journalist himself, offered to enter into an agreement for joint defense.
Transfer of Karachi to Government of Pakistan
Serious questions of separation of Karachi from Sindh arouse. the Sindhis in general and the Sindh government, in particular, were offered to the transfer of administrative control of Karachi, the capital of Pakistan as well as of Sindh. Jinnah was facing the threat of ‘direct action’ and ‘mass agitation’ nevertheless; he gave his verdict in favor of the transfer of Karachi from Sindh to the government of Pakistan. As this was the verdict of the father of the nation, not a single word was uttered against it and the issue was settled.
Accession of Kalat
Apart from being governor-general, Jinnah towards the end of his life assured the responsibility for the newly created “ministry of state and tribal areas”. His memorable achievement in this sphere was the setting of the question of accession of the huge borders of the state of Kalat – which could have given much more trouble in Pakistan than the settlement of Hyderabad question brought to India.
Formation of First Cabinet
Under the leadership of Liaquat Ali Khan, a loyal lieutenant of Jinnah was established the first Pakistan cabinet. This newly formed cabinet armed at the construction of administrative structure and rehabilitation of refugees.
State Bank of Pakistan
He fully realized the financial problems and need for around financial institutions. He, therefore, took personal internet in the economic activity of the newly independent state and established SBP. Its functions were specified.
Establishment of the Federal Court
Being the constitutionalist and apostle of indiscriminate justice, he laid the foundation of the federal court at Lahore which later on because the supreme court of Pakistan.
Membership of UNO
Jinnah was a firm behavior of peaceful existence and fully realized the importance of UN membership for Pakistan. It could help Pakistan establish friendly relations with other member states. Therefore Pakistan became a member of UNO.
Relations with Islamic World
Jinnah was a staunch lawyer of Muslim unity. Even during the freedom movement, he supported Palestinians and Indonesian for their right to self-determination. The cornerstone of his foreign policy was solidarity among Muslims. His main emphasis was a Middle Eastern country. He sent delegations to different Islamic countries.
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