Following are the four types of taxes in the Revenue System of the Holy Prophet (PBUH):
Zakat and Sadaqat
Zakat was a tax that was obligatory on every Muslim, no excuses were accepted. The state collected it. It was set at 2.5 percent. Sadaqat or Sadqah was a voluntary tax or giving of alms. All the funds collected this way were redistributed among the poor by the State.
It was a capitation-tax imposed on non-Muslims in lieu of Zakat and also for providing protection. It was mandatory on every able-bodied men. Women, children, old, insane, and disabled were exempted.
It was a land-tax imposed on the non-Muslim cultivators and landlords. It was levied on Jews of Khyber. They had agreed to pay half of the produce of Khyber lands when they surrendered in the battle. Every season, a man was sent to divide the produce into half and return with half to Madinah. It was also used to support the poor and for military of Madinah.
The spoils of war accrued from enemies of Islam. It was distributed among the warriors. One-fifth was reserved for the State. From that one-fifth, one-third went to the Prophet and his relatives, one-third wen to poor and needy and one-third for the general good of the Muslim community.
The lands conquered by the Muslims, which became the property of the Islamic State. Anything that came from there was to be used in the same way as Khums.
For complete Islamic history notes click here.