Following are main clauses of Charter of Madinah:
Republic and Nation of Madinah (Madinah is a one political entity ~ Ummah)
Sovereignty of Allah and Presidency of the Prophet (the disputes if erupted would be solved by the God and His Prophet, no one can declare war except for the Holy Prophet)
Duties and Obligations of War and Peace (while making peace or war, the believer will act collectively as a body, the Jews and Muslims must mutually help each other if Madinah comes under the threat of invasion)
- Responsibility for peace and blood-money (everyone would be responsible for their own wars. Blood-money be paid on time so that no discord should arise)
- Duties regarding debt and contract (rescue anyone who has fallen badly into debt, no contract if a contract already exists with other believer)
- No believer shall assassinate other believer. If someone does do that, retaliation or blood-money is a way out. The victim may forgive too. Same applies to the Jews.
- Mutual responsibility and brotherhood of Muslims.
- Element of tolerance.
- Jews are recognized as a political alliance.
United a city that was plunged into civil strife.
Life and property of every citizen was protected under the law.
No killing would go unpunished.
The minorities were given their due ad equal rights.
For the first time in history, Arabia had now a city which was politically organized.
In a sense, it was an outline of what the Holy Prophet and especially Islam aimed to achieve: a united Ummah where rule of law, equality, justice, tolerance, and brotherhood prevailed.
This Magna Carta of early Islam also shook the social order of Arabia. It was now moving from Tribalism to a unity based on faith.
For complete Islamic history notes click here.