PARTITON OF BENGAL:
Perhaps nothing illustrates so all the validity of sir syed ahmed khan’ reading the hindu mind as the agitation against the partition of Bengal.
The partition was the most have feint measure of the lord Curzon administration internal strife and his ought the two communities open hostility, pulling the muslim out of political lethargy.
i. Bengal was too big: – Bengal with are area of 189,000 square mills, embracing the population of about 86 million was to unwieldy to he administered efficiently by are lieutenant governor. He could not make even a tour of whole province when needed. Its huge size made it difficult for smooth sunning of administrator.
ii. Limited sources of communication:- communication system was primitive. iii. Difference of language and civilization:- there wa a great different of language and cvilization between the western and eastern districts. The Bengali language spoke in eastern was known a musalmani, western people counted they superior.
iv. The deterioration of agriculture:- the agrarian economy of Bengal was dominated by the capitalists of Calcutta and as a result million of inhabitants having in the under eastern districts was crushed under the Calcutta land lords.
v. High rate of crime:- crime rate was very high. Policy system was almost nonexistent.
vi. Education:- funds for education in eastern Bengal were meager, east Bengal was victim of shameful government a pathy
vii. Trade:-export trade of Assam was hampered because Calcutta authorities were indifferent to the needs of Chittagong port and there was an urgent need to take the matter out of their purview.
viii. No progress in eastern districts:- all welfare funds were spent in western districts. Dr.abdul hamid said about the partition of Bengal that, “if it had not been attempted by curzan, it could not have been delayed much longer after him.
In 1905, the provinces of Bengal and assan were reconstituted so as to form
two provinces of manageable size, western Bengal with the population of 54 million with 42 million hindus. Eastern Bengal and assan was the other provinces with of population of 18 million muslims and 12 million hindus. Decca was the capital of the new province. The province of eastern Bengal Bengal and assan officially came into being on 16th October.
- East Bengal and assam consisted of 106650square.miles.
It received a favorable response from muslims. Muslims never made a demand for partition of Bengal. It was beneficial for muslims in many ways.
- The new province had a population of 31 million with 18 million muslims having numerical superiority over hindus.
- The possibility of muslim economic uplift grew brighten. It was hoped that they would get rid of the hundred years of exploitation.
- Muslims hoped that their status would he raised in society as they were in minority numerical majority. They hoped that they would be free from the restraints of hindus society.
- The partition could result in the political uplift and securing representation in the government.
- Need of muslim organization(AIML):-
“the events following the partition strengthened the desire of the muslim to organize themelves politically as a separate community. The birth of all india muslim league on 30th December 1906 came as an expression of that desire”
The hindus did not accept it, as it dealt a telling blow to their monopolies and exclusive hold on economic, social, political life of the whole of the Bengal, they called it as an deliberate attempt by the british government to disrupt the national solidarity and Bengali
nationalism. They termed lord curzan as the upholder of the british official policy of divided and rule.
- Partition of Bengal had brightened the possibility of the betterment of muslims. The hindu capitalists wanted to continuo the exploitation muslims. Hindu lawyers opposed partition because they thought that the new province would have it separate courts and thus their practice would be affected.
- Hindu press was not different from that of hindu advocates hindu had their monopoly over almost whole of the provinces press. They were afraid that new newspapers would be established in the new provice.
- Hindu did not want to lose their political dominance.
Even the Indian national congress which claimed to be the representation body of all the communities strongly opposed the partition. Congress asserted that the partition would lead into the disintegration of the Bengal nationalism and would destroy bengali language and literature.
- Swadeshi movement: brought economic pressure on british by boycotting british goods. 16 October was observed as a day of national morning.
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