1. Delhi Muslim Proposals
2. Nehru Report
3. Quaid-i-Azam’s Fourteen Points
4. Simon Commission
5. Round Table Conferences
6. Constitutional Proposals
The Khilafat movement brought Hindu-Muslim communities to cooperation. The leaders made the efforts to revive harmony for preparing constitutional proposals.
1: Delhi Muslim Proposals: March 1927
Important Muslim leaders on the initiative of the Quaid met in Delhi to discuss constitutional and political issues. The major demands were:
- Punjab and Bengal: statuary Muslim majorities
- No Weightage in provinces
- Sind to be separated from Bombay
- Constitutional Reforms in NWFP
- One-third seats for Muslims in Central Legislature
- On communal issues, no law will be passed if three-fourth members of the concerned community oppose it.
If these demands are accepted, they will give up ‘separate electorate.’ Subsequently, the Muslim League was divided in
Attitude towards the Simon Commission. Jinnah continued his unremitting efforts to promote Hindu-Muslim unity.
2: The Nehru Report: 1928
The main objective was to constitute proposals for the Indian Constitution. The Congress called All Parties Conference that appointed a 10-member committee in May 1928 under the Chairmanship of Motilal Nehru and Secretary ship of Jawaharlal Nehru.
Recommendations that threatened Muslim interests are:
- No Separate electorate
- No One-third seats for Muslims in Central Assembly
- No reservation of seats for Muslims in Punjab and Bengal. In Hindu- majority provinces, the Muslims may be given seats according to population
- Sind to be made a province if it can bear its expenses. Balochistan, NWFP were accepted to be given constitutional status on certain conditions.
Quaid-i-Azam tried to get amendments in the Report in the All Parties Conference in Calcutta but did not succeed. This is the very moment when Jinnah remarked, “it is parting of the ways.” He presented the 14 points as a Muslim leader.
3: Jinnah’s Fourteen Points: 1929
2. Provincial autonomy.
3. Separate electorate for Muslims.
4. Effective representation to minorities in the provinces but the majority should not be reduced to a minority
5. One-third representation of Muslims in Central Legislature.
6. One-third Muslim representation in cabinets.
7. No changes in the boundaries of the Punjab and Bengal that would adversely affect the Muslim majority.
8. Religious freedom to all.
9. No law will be passed if three-fourth elected members of a community declare that it is against their interests.
10. Sind to be made a separate province.
11. Constitutional Reforms in NWFP and Balochistan.
12. Muslim representation in govt. jobs.
13. Constitutional safeguards for Islamic culture and civilization, education, language, personal laws
14. No constitutional amendment unless all constituent units of the federation agree to it.
These points reflected the aspirations of every Muslim living in India.
4: The Simon Commission:
The British government sent a commission to seek the opinion of Indians on the future shape of constitutional arrangements. It arrived in India in 1927 and it published the report in 1930. Most political parties boycotted it. It presented its report containing several constitutional proposals:
Federalsystem of government with strong centre
- Two Houses.
- Abolition of Dyarchy system in provinces
- More powers to provincial governments.
- Governor not to interfere in day to day affairs.
- Constitutional changes in NWFP
5: Roundtable Conferences: 1930, 1931, and 1932
First Session of the Conference
In the first session, a number of prominent Muslims like M. A. Jinnah, Sir Shafi, Maulana M. A. Jauhar, Zafarullah Khan participated. They emphasized federalism, self- government, safeguards for minorities,
Maulana M. A. Jauhar had died after the first conference. Iqbal, Jinnah
The Communal Award, August 1932
Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald announced the Communal Award:
1. Separate electorate for all minorities of India.
2. Weightage to minorities
3. No Muslim majorities in Punjab and Bengal as was followed in Lucknow Pact
6. Sind to be made a province
Poona Pact, September 1932
The Congress expressed strong reaction against the right of
3rd Roundtable Conference: Nov. 17-Dec. 24 1932
The main issues had been discussed in the first two conferences and now the rest of them were to be discussed. It was poorly attended conference. Quaid did not participate despite living in London. Gandhi did not attend as he had been detained.
The conference brought no change in party positions and widened Hindu-Muslim gulf.
White Paper on Constitutional Proposals: March 1933
The British government issued a small document in the form the White Paper. It included detail of working basis of the Indian constitution with Dyarchy in the
Approved by the King: August 1935
Hindu Muslim Relations
Failure to arrive at
Muslim demands transmuted from safeguarding rights to complete independence—Pakistan.
For complete Pakistan Affairs notes click here.