FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE CREATOIN
OF MUSLIM NATIONALISM IN INDIA
Pakistan ideology was based on a separate nation having their own culture, civilization, customs, literature, religion and way of because their philosophy of life is based on the principle of Islam. Pakistan ideology was erected on the two nation theory which meant that Hindus and Muslims were two separate and district nations. There is a general impression that the concept of Muslims nationalism in the Indian subcontinent arose as a result of certain developments in this view. We can trace the roots of Muslims nationalism in the following factors.
FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR MUSLIM NATIONALISM:
The concept of Muslims nationalism is a old a Islam itself. It was Muhammad bin qasim who established the first Muslim empire in the subcontinent. Later on sultanate of Delhi was established.
Then enter the great mughals, who gave India pace and glory for two centuries. Muslims maintained their separate identity throughout the history. They were a separate nation. The Muslims were the rulers and the Hindus were their subjects. It was the rise of British which brought a change in the status of Hindus and Muslims. This brought a new zeal to the
Muslims nationalism because Muslim is there on the earth to rule.
Muslim came to India as conquerors and had established an empire which lasted for hundreds of years. This factory molded their outlook in many ways. Imperialism and pride go hand. In India, their imperial past produced among Muslims a sense of pride. Hindus became loyal
towards the British. Hindus tried utmost to dominate the Muslims as they were in minority.
The political events of 20th century, India brought a new unity among Hindus but it created fear and suspicion in the minds of the Muslims because of the events like partition of Bengal and congress attitude. Thus these political events enhanced the sense of Muslims nationalism among Muslims.
Religion is an essential element of Indian nationalism and exerts a decisive influence on the national life of the people. Earlier, Indian nationalism was both religious and (religion) and racial (anti British). Both Hindu and Indian nationalism were based on religion Hinduism is absolutely incompatible with Islam. It is based on caste system whereas, Islam advocates egalitarian
society. In India, pan-Islamizing movement was imitated by jamaluddin Afghani. The doctrine was that Muslims all over the world would were brother. In India, the doctrine had stronger appeal than in other countries.
The partition of India was due to the forces of cultural separatism. Cultural is a greatest determination of a nation. Which lives in the minds of the men and moulds their way of thinking?
In India, Hindu and Muslim cultures existed over since the Muslims came to India. The background and contents and contours of the two cultures were so different that they never evolved a common society. Their different cultural bodies preceded their political bodies.
The difference of language was another factors Urdu was the language of the Muslims and Hindi was of Hindus. The more the Hindus laid stress on Hindi, the greater emphasis the Muslims put on Urdu. Muslims claimed to by a separate nation. A nation was supposes to have a language of its own. Urdu was an important stimulant of Muslim nationalism. (Urdu – Hindi)
In education, Muslim ideals differed from those of Hindus. In the beginning, the Muslims were against English but Hindus adopted it quickly. Aligarh was the symbol of Muslim nationalism in the field of education and learning, Hindus opposed the establishment of Muslim university Aligarh and introduced wardha scheme which was against the Muslim ideals.
Muslims literary productions were of different nature, had a different background and were inspired by different sources-religion, history, influence of Persian and Arabic. Hindus were inspired by kalidas gupta, in promotion of Urdu Hali, Shible, sir Syed, Nazir Ahmed; Abdul Haq played a vitale role.
Hindus looked to their own ancient philosophy just as the Muslims traced their intellectual ancestry to Muslim thinkers like iqbal, Ghazale, Abne-Sena, Ibni khaldon; Hindus got inspiration from rahda Krishan, Ghandi.
Muslims look towards mughals building as their artistic heritage, Lal Qela, Taj Mahal, Shahe Mahal are their masterpieces. Art of miniature painting was introduced by shah jahan. Hindus were equally impressed by the architecture of south India temples.
The difference in psychology played an important role in the rise of Muslim nationalism.
Their myths and symbol were different (“Pakistan Zindabad. “Allah-o-Akbar”, “bharat matta ke jaa”, “jaa hind”). The fear and insecurity among the Muslims and pride in their heroes was another factor of Muslim nationalism.
NATIONAL CONSCIOUSESS: (spiritual factor)
The essence of nationality lies, above all in the will of people, the will to live together, Muslims nationalism has existed in history for a long time but it is only through consciousness or awakening of it, that it became the absolute factor, Muslim nationalism was the result, not of blood, nor of common language, not even of shared territory but of consciousness. Material
facts of course helped the configuration but the real driving impetus behind the movement was spiritual.
It was not enough to have a common religion, common history or language. People must he conscious about their past and future, this consciousness was a great force behind the Muslim nationalism.
The essence of nationality lies, above all in the will of people, the will to live together, Muslims nationalism has existed in history for a long time but it is only through consciousness or awakening of it, that it became the absolute factor, Muslim nationalism was the result, not of blood, nor of common language, not even of shared territory but of consciousness. Material facts of course helped the configuration but the real driving impetus behind the movement was spiritual.
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