Following are most expected currents affairs CSS-2019 questions:
Q: What are the main objectives of Trump’s administration to impose tariffs on China? What are its precipitated implications and option for China to response it?
Q: Critically evaluate the US-Indo Pacific Policy and its effects on the region?
Q: Recent US talks with Taliban have opened a window of opportunity to resolve the longstanding issue of Afghanistan. Examine the role of Pakistan in settling the Afghanistan issue.
Q: Examine that why did Trump’s Administration withdrawal from Iran-Nuclear Deal 2015 and what will be its regional and global implications?
Q: Water security has attained unprecedented importance in Pakistan in recent months. Explain the domestic and regional causes of this problem and suggest solution.
Q: Pakistan-China Strategic Interdependence. Elaborate significantly with logical argument.
Q: The shackles of foreign debts are a major hurdle in the way of our national progress. Suggest applicable measures in debt reduction in Pakistan?
Q: Pakistan and China has announced the second phase of CPEC projects. Give e a detailed account of the 2nd phase and is China-Pakistan Economic Corridor a 21st Century East India Company?
Q: US War on terror and sacrifices of
Pakistan. Give a critical overview
Q: Growing Indo-US nexus represented in signing COMCASA has posed a significant threat to Pakistan security. Suggest option for Pakistan to counter this threat.
Q: What kind of challenges the China Pakistan Economic Corridor creates for Pakistan? What Pakistan should do maximize the potential benefits from CPEC?
Q: Pakistan is not a poor country but it has been badly governed. Elucidate the nature of crisis of governance in Pakistan in the light of statement? Suggest significant strategies to ensure the effectual governance system in Pakistan.
Q: FATA merger-adding a new millstone in our national integration. How FATA merger will help to militancy and terrorism, and how it will be beneficial for the people of FATA?
Q: Recent Saudi Arabian support to Pakistan has once again confirmed the deep-rooted relations. Explain the challenges to these relations caused in the recent years.
Q: What is the contemporary World Order? How China is transforming the World Order?
Q: Discuss the factors affecting peace process between India and Pakistan. Suggest measures in moving forward with the Peace Process
Q: What challenges is Pakistan facing in the aftermath of war in Afghanistan?
Research Based Answer of Q: 02
Q: Examine the ‘‘S-400 Defense Deal” between Russia and India and how it has raised security challenges for Pakistan with proposed options to respond the risks of this deal.
India and Russia are strategic allies with
significant defense collaboration, intelligence sharing and diplomatic ties.
Both countries share an entrenched and time-tested friendship which has grown
manifold over the last few years. After independence, India cultivated its
diplomatic ties with the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). The USSR
always supported the Indian stance over Kashmir at the UN. Both countries
developed strategic ties and started joint manufacturing of defense
technologies, mainly weapons and related equipments. As of today, India imports
most of its arms and equipments from
Russia for instance, nuclear submarines, surveillance and reconnaissance aircrafts/helicopters, joint manufacturing of SU-30 MKI aircrafts, up gradation of Sukhoi aircrafts, T-90 Main Battle Tanks (MBTs) and repairing of different weapon systems
Indo-Russia Defense Collaboration
Russia has re-emerged as a great power with strong economy and military muscles. In 2008, it launched a massive modernization plan to revamp its overall military and induct latest technologies in its arms productions. Although, on some fronts India and Russia are not on the same page, for instance India’s increasing strategic ties with the US and other European countries and improving economic ties with China, despite all these developments, the defense collaboration between India and Russia is still matchless. Russia is still one of the major arms suppliers to the Indian military.
The S-400 Air Defense Deal
Moscow and New Delhi have inked a $5.4 billion contract on the supply of Russia’s S-400 air defense system to India, with deliveries scheduled to start in 2020. India will receive ten battalions of the system, with a battalion normally consisting of 8 launchers, 112 missiles and the associated with command, radar and support vehicles.
Russian President Viladi Mir Putin signed this deal with other 16 defense projects with the Indian Prime Minster on October 15, 2016 in New Delhi. The most important part of the deal was the S-400 Missile Air Defense System which is considered a game changer in the region. India would be the third foreign buyer of this system, following China and Turkey.
Implications for Pakistan
Reinforce Indian Offensive Capabilities: S-400 a system would not only add offensive capabilities to the Indian military, but also protect sensitive civil or military installations, major cities, missile sites, nuclear facilities, and command and control centre’s (CCCs). Each S-400 battalion would be equipped with eight launchers, a control centre, radar and 16 missiles. It would be close to impossible for an aircraft to evade the S-400 missile travelling at 17,000 kmh.
Challenging the Balance of Power: The induction of S- 400 means that India would have advantage even in the air space of Pakistan and any aircraft, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), missile, would be on its radar. Similarly, an early detection would give the Indian military adequate time for countermeasures. This S-400 system seriously challenges the balance of power in this region particularly for Pakistan in the circumstance of conventional military and air power.
Making Vulnerable Pakistan’s Air Force: S-400 air defense system provides full protection from airborne threats. The system would detect aircrafts, missiles, or drones at about 600 km and destroy them at 400km range which means Pakistan’s Air Force would be vulnerable against such a highly advanced air defense system.
Security Challenge for Pakistan: In the result of expensive arms deal like S-400, conventional balance would tilt in favor of India and it creates serious challenges for Pakistan security. Conventional deterrence is costly and prevents a state from any aggressive maneuver, surgical strikes, or limited conflict against another country. And it is much difficult for Pakistan how to maintain conventional balance with India because India can afford its conventional arms buildup because of its huge economic size.
Disturbing Conventional Military Balance: Indian conventional arms buildup through number of arms deals with many courtiers like S-400 deal with Russia certainly disturb conventional military balance in South Asia and encourage the arms race. Both states have strategic equivalence as far as nuclear deterrence is concerned, but the possibility of a limited war cannot be overruled.
Prevent the Region from Economic Development: Jumping into an arms race with an economically powerful India would mean diverting funds from socio-economic development to defense related procurement. Such a situation would not only hurt Pakistan’s socio-economic scenario, it would prevent the region from economic development. Hostilities would flare-up and further putting regional security at greater risk.
1-MIRVs (Multiple independently targetable re-entry vehicles)
Pakistan has developed MIRVs (Multiple independently targetable re-entry vehicles) technology which allows a single missile to fire multiple warheads against more than one target. In January, 2017, Pakistan successfully tested its surface to surface ballistic missile named Ababeel which is capable of carrying multiple warheads. The S-400 cannot counter MIRVs owing to a limited target so it will remain as a potential threat to India.
2-Fifth-Generation Stealth Aircraft
Pakistan is developing Fifth-Generation Stealth Aircraft in collaboration with China. These aircrafts would not be detectable on the radars, hence, rendering S-400 ineffective against airstrikes by Pakistani stealth fighters. Secondly, Pakistan can use swarm attack tactic during conflict or crisis and maximize target saturation. In that case, no defense system in the world can counter a saturation attack as of now.
3-Fake Missiles Using Decoys
Pakistan can launch fake missiles using decoys to counter S-400 system in times of war. In that situation, no system is capable of differentiating between a decoy missile and an actual nuclear missile presently. Another way to counter S-400 is to launch massive numbers of drones to confuse which target to select.
4-Imroving the Quality of Nuclear Arsenals
Pakistan recent embrace of the utility of tactical nuclear weapons and broader Pakistani efforts to enhance the quality and quantity of their nuclear arsenal is a result of Indian growing conventional capabilities and its more proactive military plans.
Over the past two decades, Pakistan lost billions of dollars in the War against Terror. After years of setbacks, the country economy is growing slowly. Such a fragile economic situation does not allow for continuous arms race with India. Consequently, India military modernization along with aggressive doctrines and overwhelming reliance on nuclear weapons by Pakistan would create serious security problems for the peace and security of South Asia. Indo-Russian defense collaboration creates serious strategic disparity between India and Pakistan. It is essential for both nuclear states to avoid confrontation, refrain from aggressive doctrines and resolve all lingering issues through amicable means, only then can there be long-term peace and stability in the region.
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