As mentioned above, the economic system was a collective one. Everyone in the tribe owned equally. This was massively changed after the emergence of money economy. Those who started early gained an upper hand in the field of money economy such as the Quraish. They now lent money to the ones that needed it, usually Bedouin tribes at an exorbitant interest rate, that sometimes reached 50 percent. Islam prohibited usury altogether. It made ownership private though. Usury ensued bitter rivalries and Bedouins never benefited from it; they only got more debt over time.
Islamic law of inheritance also deserves few lines. There was no law of inheritance in Arabia at least a defined one. Now each member of the family knew what they will inherit. The tribe had no connection to the inheritance. Woman was to receive half of the wealth because man was made a provider of the family. In this sense, it is laudable how Islam gave women capital through inheritance where no one can question about the use of that money.
For complete Islamic history notes click here.