MINTO MORLEY REFORMS INDIA COUNCIL ACT 1909
When lord minto came as viceroy in India, the whole country was in a state
political unrest. He had to pass mainly drastic law to suppress the revolutionary activities. But the sametime, he in collaboration with lord morley, the then secretary of state for india introduced some reforms to give greater share to the local masses in government. These reforms
are known as minto morley reforms
FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE REFORM:
Dissatisfaction caused by the act of 1892:
Indian were not satisfied with the act if 1892 which did not give enough
powers to imperial and provincial legislative councils.
Authoritarian polices of lord curzan:
His administrative policies had alienated Indians. He opposed local self government which annoyed the Indians.
Rise in prices:
Inflation had brought people against the british government.
Victory of japan over Russia 1905:
Japanese victory had created a hope among Indian who started behaving that finally the east had renew. It was also felt that England was declining.
All treatment with the Indian abroad:
Esp Indian in Africa, cylone, Malaya.
To pacify the extremists:
Indian councils act was passed by the british parliament in 1909.
Expansion of imperial legislative council. Rise in number of additional members of all governor general council to 60.
Expansion of provincial legislative councils:
Functions and powers of imp L.C inreaed:
Members could move resolutions and ask supplementary question. Government could refuse to answer the supplementary questions.
Increase in executive council’s members:
The number of members of executive council of Bombay, madras and Bengal was raised from 2 to 4
Indian appointment in executive councils.
System of communal and class electorates.
The demand of responsible government was rejected only minor changes were introduced the act eve undue importance to landlords and industries by giving them endue importance.The franchise was restricted and number of vote was very small. They could be easily purchased.Minor changes were made in the powers of legislative councils
Hindu politicians, esp. the congress launched demonstrative campaign against the act. They were against the muslims right of separate electorate. Its was because of this motive that at the 1910 session, the congress condemned the provision of separate electorates and demanded its withdrawal up to 1935, the congress kept on passing resolution against the
clause except in case of lucknow pact(1916).
Despite certain flows the reforms were considered as a great omen to the msulim fate. Since they granted the muslims their long standing and cherished desire the separate electorate in the provinces where legislative councils existed. The simla deputation demand was met. Thus muslim welcomed the act.
ROLE OF MUSLIM LEAGUE:
Minto morley reforms are said to reflect the first achievement of newly founded all india muslim league, nevertheless the demand for separate electorates had already been made in simla deputation but the role of muslim league to make this demand a reality was commendable.
All hindus and several british observes of the Indian scene opposed and criticized the demand of communal electorate as a breach of democratic principle but it was the result of the tiresome efforts of the muslim league that morley considered the muslim demand genuine and justified.
It was the achievement of the muslim league that the british government for the first time accepted that india where different communities live the western type of democracy is not applicant. The voice of sir syed saw reality of the day. It was the record achievement of the muslim league with in its two years of inception. The acceptance of separate electorate set the cause of muslim separation in india.
The significance of minto morley reforms in not only the constitutional development in Indian politics but it also played paramount importance to the political fate of muslims in india. Had there been no provision of separate electorate in the minto-morley reforms, there would have been least enhance of lucknow pact 1916 and consequently, there would
have been no chances of concept of Pakistan resolution in 1940.
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