The brain child of haji Muhammad abid and the foil of maulana Muhammad qasimdarul- uloom doeband, was the birth place of Islamic movement. The movement was launched in order to counter-act the growing tendency of Aligarh movement, whose motto was to adjust
and reconcile with british rulers and the western Christian. Deoband movement was a struggle for the welfare and renaissance of the desperate and hopeless muslim community of india through orthodox religious reading.
CREDO OF DEABAND:
As the Aligarh movement took upon itself the work of the renaissance and rehabilitation of the muslim community by presenting islam in a rational way and laying stress on the socio economic aspect of the life, the deoband movement in its initial stage concentrated on minimizing the diversity of thought among the various sects and purifying the tradition of islam from alien influences and unhealthy customs.
The first principle of darul-uloom deoband…. Maulana Muhammad qasim nanautri along with his lieutenant had come into conflict with british during the war of independence 1857. The movement led them to expostulate western thoughts. Hence, the institution and the movement committed to stand the religious nationalism in india. There main aim was to supplement the muslim with the reawaking of religious nationalism,
religious traditionalism and to refrain from them from the social and educational osmosis of the west. To the pioneers of the institution, who were mostly orthodox ulema, the defense of the religion was the only panacea to save the distinct identity of the muslim nations and to avoid their extinction under the sway of Christian missionary work and hindu
PERSONALITIES OF DEOBAND:
The deoband movement was the healthy blend of spiritualism and mysticism. Its adherence was moderate and not extremist. Maulana Muhammad qasim was in fact the speak-head of the movement and the institution. His efforts for the success of the institutions were so great that the madrassah at the deoband, with the time came to be known as “qasimul
uloom deoband”. Many other institution established by him in various part of the country served as branches of the movement and performed commendably for the spread of religious education. Maulana shabbier ahmed usmani extended his services for the institution without any recommendation. The role sheikhul hind, maulana ahmedul Hassan was very dynamic.
He was first among the deoband teachers to extend his co-operation towards Aligarh. His liberalism brought the two institution and the movement into the threshold of rapprochement.
ROLE/INFUENCE OF DEOBEND:
Deoband, no doubt caste an influence, not only over the sub-continent but over the whole mulsim world. Muslims of cairo Saudi Arabia and Palestine were totally aware of the movement. The institution attracted a largely and fairly number of students of the subcontinent and from other part of the muslim world. Its education standard was so maintained that it was soon rated as one of the religious seats of Islamic learning. Next to the azhar university of cairo, deoband stand as an institution stood for defending religio-political goals of shah of shah wali ullah, who was their mentor. Religious their plan was to train enough ulema to be able to spread the philosophy of islam, and they succeeded in producing many famous personalities such as maulana ashraf ali thanvi, maulana hussain ahmed madni, maulana shabbir ahmed usmani, maulana ubaid-ullah, sindhi who spread islam in the sub-continent. Quran, hadith, Arabic, Islamic jurisprudence philosophy and Islamic jurisprudence were the main
discipline of the institution. The “patwa” of deoband ulema were of great authenticity and considered important in the sub-continent.
Administratively, darul-uloom, was an excellent setup which provided administrative guidance to other educational institutions in sphere of syllabi, conduct of examinations and imparting education in different spheres.
Politically, the leaders of the movement aimed at closer relationship with the sultan of turkey. Although the Indian national congress influence deoband, but there was one clear group under maulana ashraf ali thanvi and maulana shabbir Ahmed usmani was counter acted the
influence of the congress.
The group under thanvi setup jamiut-ul-ulema islam and supported Pakistan movement and extended valuable assistance to Muhammad ali Jinnah. Notwithstanding the collaboration of madni group with congress, the thanvi group was more popular among the Muslims.
Socially, hew institution, like Aligarh endeavored, and did succeed to reawaken the Muslims with social consciousness. It stressed upon the need of social mobility and provided Muslims with new social psychics through religious education.
DEABAND VS ALIGARH
Deoband adopted the ostrich like attitude towards the western culture and learning, nevertheless, the uleema of deoband, were more effective in combating the ant-islamic missionaries but they failed to follow the teaching of their mentor-shah wali ullah, and they could not provide any solid leadership to the muslim community.
Whereas, sir syed ahmed khan, highly felt the need of revitalizing and re-evaluating the idea of islam in the light of the philosophy of shah wali ullah, and became successful to help resolve the intellectual crisis that had been created by the traditional thinking and religious fundamentalism.
The Aligarh movement, unlike deoband very instrumental in the muslim masses. Its impartment to entertain the religious thoughts or rationalism, highly achieved its manifesto. Since the inception, the deoband movement worked on the strategy, anti of Aligarh, the Aligarh policy was based on the policy of reconciliation with the british whereas Deoband followed a
conflicting attitude towards the british. This diversity of political approach widened the gulf between the two institution. the two remained engaged in controversy. The advice of sir syed not to join congress was opposed by deoband leader, maulana Rashid ahmed gangohi. This political tension between the two institutions continued till 1947.
Where as the Aligarh with its liberal attitude towards british and islam succeeded in its mission and spearheaded Pakistan movement; but deoband in its temperament dealt islam on fanatic basis and failed to achieve desired results. Their leaders such as maulana mahmood-ul-hassan and ubaid-ullah sindhi supported afghans and turks against british in first world war and subsequently the war over the influence of hindu congress.
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