Q1. Make a precise of the following passage in about one-third of its length and suggest a suitable heading.
It was not from want of perceiving the beauty of external nature but from the different way of perceiving it, that the early Greeks did not turn their genius to portray, either in color or in poetry, the outlines, the hues, and contrasts of all fair valley, and hold cliffs, and golden moons, and rosy lawns which their beautiful country affords in lavish abundance.
Primitive people never so far as I know, enjoy when is called the picturesque in nature, wild forests, beetling cliffs, reaches of Alpine snow are with them great hindrances to human intercourse and difficulties in the way of agriculture. They are furthermore the homes of the enemies of mankind, of the eagle, the wolf, or the tiger, and are most dangerous in times of earthquake or tempest. Hence the grand and striking features of nature are at first looked upon with fear and dislike.
I do not suppose that Greeks different in the respect of other people, except that the frequent occurrence of mountains and forests made agriculture peculiarly difficult and intercourse scanty, thus increasing their dislike for the apparently reckless waste in nature. We have even in Homer a similar feeling as regards the sea, — the sea that proved the source of all their wealth and the condition of most of their greatness. Before they had learned all this, they called it “the unvintagable sea” and looked upon its shore as merely so much wasteland. We can, therefore, easily understand, how in the first beginning of Greek art, the representation of wild landscape would find no place, whereas, fruitful fields did not suggest themselves as more than the ordinary background. Art in those days was struggling with material nature to which it felt a certain antagonism.
There was nothing in the social circumstances of the Greeks to produce any revolution in this attitude during their greatest days. The Greek republics were small towns where the pressure of city life was not felt. But as soon as the days of the Greeks republics were over, the men began to congregate for imperial purposes into Antioch, or Alexandria, or lastly into Rome, than we seek the effect of noise and dust and smoke and turmoil breaking out into the natural longing for rural rest and retirement so that from Alexander’s day …… We find all kinds of authors — epic poets, lyricist, novelists and preachers — agreeing in the precise of nature, its rich colours, and its varied sounds. Mohaffy: Rambles in Greece
Q2. Read the following passage and answer the questions given at the end in your own words.
Poetry is the language of imagination and passions. It relates to whatever gives immediate pleasure or pain to human min. it comes home to the bosoms and business of men: for nothing but what comes home to them in the most general and intelligible shape can be a subject of poetry. Poetry is the universal language which the heart holds with nature and itself. He who has a contempt for poetry cannot have much respect for himself or for anything else. Whatever there is a sense of beauty, or power, or harmony, as in the motion of the waves of the sea, in the growth of a flower, there is a poetry in its birth. If history is a grave study, poetry may be said to be graver, its materials lie deeper, and are spread wider. History treats, for the most part, cumbersome and unwieldy masses of things, the empty cases in which the affairs of the world are packed, under the heads of intrigue or war, in different states, and from century to century but there is no thought or feeling that can have entered into the mind of man which he would be eager to communicate to others, or they would listen to with delight, that is not a fit subject for poetry. It is not a branch of authorship: it is “the stuff of which our life is made”. The rest is mere oblivision, a dead letter, for all that is worth remembering gin life is the poetry of it. Fear is Poetry, hope is poetry, love is poetry; hatred is poetry. Poetry is that fine particle within us that expands, refines, raises our whole being; without “man’s life is poor as beasts”. In fact, man is a poetical animal. The child Is a poet when he first plays hide and seek, or repeats the story of Jack the Giant Killer, the shepherd – boy is a poet when he first crowns his mistress with a garland of flowers; the countryman when he stops he stops to look at the rainbow; the miser when he hugs his gold; the courtier when he builds his hope upon a smile; the vain, the ambitious the proud, the choleric man, the hero and the coward, the beggar and the king, all live in a world of their own making; and the poet does no more than describe what all others think and act.
(a) In what sense is poetry the language of the imagination and the passion?
(b) How is poetry the Universal Language of the heart?
(c) What is the difference between history and poetry?
(d) Explain the phrase: “Man is a poetical animal”.
(e) What are some of the actions which Hazlitt calls poetry and its doers poet?
(f) Explain the following underlined expression in the passage.
(i) It relates to whatever gives immediate pleasure or pain to the human heart
(ii) A sense of beauty, or power, or harmony.
(iii) Cumbersome and unwieldy masses of things.
(iv) It is the stuff of which our life is made.
(v) The poet does no more than describe what all others think and act.
Q3. Write a comprehensive note (250 – 300) on ONE of the following subjects.
(a) Modern history registers so primary and rapid changes that it cannot repeat itself.
(b) “The golden rule is that there is no golden rule”. G. B. Shaw
(c) Crisis tests the true mettle of man.
(d) It is excellent to have a giant’s strength; but it is tyrannical to use it like a giant.
Q4. Correct the following sentences.
(a) His wisdom consisted of his handling the dangerous situation successfully
(b) Many a girls were appearing in the examination.
(c) The vehicles run fastly on the Motorway.
(d) Smoking is injurious for health.
(e) He availed of this situation very intelligently.
(f) The black vermin is an odious creature.
(g) What to speak of meat, even, vegetables were not available now.
(h) No sooner we left our home when it started raining.
(i) Little money I had I spent on the way.
(j) The criminal was sent on the goal.
Q5. Use FIVE of the following in sentences to make their meaning clear.
(i) The teeming meanings
(ii) To kick the bucket
(iii) To push to the walls
(iv) To read between the lines
(v) To be at daggers drawn
(vi) To throw down the gauntlet
(vii) To be a Greek
(viii) To stand on ceremony
(ix) From the horse’s mouth
(x) To carry the cross.
Q6. Use FIVE of the following pairs of words in sentences.
- Brooch, broad
- Collusion, collision
- Fain, feign
- Hoard, horde
- Illusion, delusion
- Persecute, prosecute
- Prescribe, proscribe
- Respectfully, respectively
- Complacent, complaisant
- Sweating away as usual
- Health first, exam second
- Can you study while confined to bed.
- Has anyone be marketed anywhere?
- An unwanted commodity
- As long as there is life, there is hope.
- You will become a thin, gaunt, half-blind weakling with sunken cheeks and haggard looks.
- Once again grow into a rose-cheeked young man.
- There is no deviation from it.
- The paring of ways.
Q7. Read the following dialogue and place the following words in it at proper places.
- Good morning Waseem ___________________and looking pale. Come out in the open.
- I am sorry, Nadeem. I cannot do that. The examination is drawing near and I want to utilize every minute for its preparation.
- To hell with exam _______
- Well, health is good but failure is bad. Therefore, one should take books and study them for the University exam.
- Suppose you grow into a bookworm and as a result fall ill. _______. Again, many boys work hard and get degrees. Do you think they get jobs. Our society is flooded with graduates but _______? They are roaming about with degrees in their hands. They are ____.
- Well. Degree is an ornament in itself, job or no job. Besides, there is no need to be hopeless. I am sure when I get a degree with a good grade, I am sure to get a job in a Government office or in a private firm. You know that _______.
- Well, how should I explain to you the blessing of a good health. If you continue treading on this path, _______. Please come into the fresh air take exercise and play some game and _______ Don’t grow old prematurely.
- Please listen, I want to be a graduate this year, now or never. I have made up my mind for this and _______.
- Well, if this is your aim, then _______.
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