The following precis appeared in the CSS Precis 2013 exam:
CSS 2013 English Precis
Culture, in human societies, has two main aspects; an external, formal aspect and an inner, ideological aspect. The external forms of culture, social or artistic, are merely an organized expression of its inner ideological aspect, and both are an inherent component of a given social structure. They are changed or modified when this structure. They are changed and modified when this structure is changed or modified and because of this organic link they also help and influence such changes in their parent organism. Cultural Problems, therefore, cannot be studied or understood or solved in isolation from social problems, i.e. problems of political and economic relationships. The cultural problems of the underdeveloped countries, therefore, have to be understood and solved in the light of larger perspective, in the context of underlying social problems. Very broadly speaking, these problems are primarily the problems of arrested growth; they originate primarily from long years of imperialist-Colonialist domination and the remnants of a backward outmoded social structure.
This should not require much elaboration European Imperialism caught up with the countries of Asia, Africa or Latin America between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries. Some of them were fairly developed feudal societies with ancient traditions of advanced feudal culture. Others had yet to progress beyond primitive pastoral tribalism. Social and cultural development of them all was frozen at the point of their political subjugation and remained frozen until the coming of political independence. The culture of these ancient feudal societies, in spite of much technical and intellectual excellence, was restricted to a small privileged class and rarely intermingled with the parallel unsophisticated folk culture of the general masses. Primitive tribal culture, in spite of its child like beauty, had little intellectual content.
Both feudal and tribal societies living contagiously in the same homelands were constantly engaged in tribal, racial and religious or other feuds with their tribal and feudal rivals.
Colonialist – imperialist domination accentuated this dual fragmentation, the vertical division among different tribal and national groups, the horizontal division among different classes within the same tribal or national groups. This is the basic ground structure, social and cultural,
bequeathed to the newly liberated countries by their former over lords.
SOLUTION of CSS 2013 Precis
In human societies, there are two main facets of culture: extrinsic and intrinsic. The former is a manifestation of inner ideas. Both are an integral part of society and change as society changes.
Any alteration in society causes a change in these two characteristics which, in turn, affects the host species. Cultural problems in less developed countries, which originated with their colonization, are wedded to social issues and have to be understood in a broad social scenario.
Societies in such countries were either feudal or tribal and their evolution ceased with colonization. In countries, where these two segments co-existed, they engaged in disputes over different issues. Colonialism deepened the chasm between them. Thus, colonists left a disintegrated society in countries where they ruled.
Cultural Issues in Underdeveloped Countries: a legacy of Colonialism
Effect of Colonization on Culture
Required words = 362/3 = 120
Words after making precis = 122
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