Table of Contents
- 1 JINNAH’ FOURTEEN POINT INTRODUCTION:
- 2 DELHI MUSLIM PROPOSALS:
- 3 POINTS:
- 4 SIGNIFICANCE:
- 5 SIMON COMMISSIONREPORTINTRODUCTION:
- 6 APPOINTMENT AND THE COMPOSITION OF COMMISSION:
- 7 INDIAN REACTION TOWARDS THE COMPOSITION OF COMMISSION:
- 8 CONGRESS REACTION:
- 9 MUSLIM REACTION:
- 10 IQBAL ADDRESS AT ALAHABADBACKGROUND:
- 11 MUSLIM LEAGUE ANNUAL SESSION AT ALLAHABAD ON DEC’ 30 1930:
- 12 RE-CONSTRUCTION OF RELIGIOUS THOUGHTS IN ISLAM BY IQBAL:
- 13 CONCLUSION
- 14 ROUND TABLE CONFERENCES BACKGROUND:
- 15 ROUND TABLE CONFERENCE 🙁 12-nov-1930)-(19-jan-1931)
- 16 GANDHI-IRWIN PACT (DELHI-MARCH 1931)
- 17 ANALYSIS:
- 18 2ND COUNTRY TABLE CONFERENCE:(sep 07,1931—aug 04,1931)
- 19 COMMUNAL AWARDS: (aug 04’ 1932)
- 20 ANALYSIS:
- 21 3RD ROUND TABLE CONFERENCE: (nov 17’ 1932)
- 22 CIRCUMISTANCES LEADING TO THE PASSING OF THE ACT:
- 23 FEATURES OF THE ACT:
- 24 THREE LISTS OF SUBJECTS:
- 25 THE SUBJECT OF THE VICCEORY:
- 26 BICAMERAL FEDERAL LEGISLATURE:
- 27 BICAMERAL FEDERAL LEGISLATURE:
- 28 PATTERM PF ELECTIONS:
- 29 POWERS OF ELECTIONS:
- 30 ESTABLISHMENT OF FEDERAL COURT:
- 31 ABOLITION OF THE INDIAN COUNCIL OF SEC OF STATE:
- 32 A RIGIID CONSTITUTION:
- 33 SINDH SEPARATED FROM BOMBAY:
- 34 N.W.F.P WITH FULL PROVINCIAL POWER:
- 35 CRITICAL ANALYSIS:
- 36 CONGRESS AND MUSLIM LEAGUE RESPONSE:
- 37 CONGRESS IN POLITICS: INTRODUCTION:
- 38 GENTLEMAN’S AGREEMENT:
- 39 MINISTERS NOT REPONSEBLE TO LEGISLATURE:
- 40 ANTI-MUSLIM ACTIVITIES:
- 41 DELEGATION INTO HINDU ATTROCITIES: REPORT:
- 42 SHARIF REPORT:
- 43 FAZLUL HAQ’ MUSLIM SUFFEREINGS UNDER CONGRESS RULE:
- 44 END OF CONGRESS RULE:
- 45 THE DAY OF DELIVERANCE:
- 46 CONCLUSION:
- 47 CONCLUSION:
- 48 47
JINNAH’ FOURTEEN POINT
The resolution passed by all india muslim league at delhi session 1929 is known as jinnah’s fourteen points. These point are logical off shoot of the failure of the Nehru report.
The refused to accept any amendment to Nehru report on the part of the congress and the hindu leaders united different factions of fuction of muslims in the all india muslim conference held in delhi in jan 1929. This was a constitutional era. But the reforms so far introduced by the british and proposed by the hindu had failed to placate the muslim. The basic
difference was that congress always spoke on behalf of all Indians a whole, while the muslim always regarded them as a separate entity and as such its demands and aspirations differed from those of congress.
DELHI MUSLIM PROPOSALS:
The hindu political circles were of the opinion that the muslims must accept joint electorates the muslims were of course very sensitive on this issue, but in order to compromise with majority, the muslim league its claim of the maintenance of separate electorates on the following conditions.
Separate of sindh from Bombay.Reforms should be introduced in sindh, NWFP balochistan like other province.1/3 muslim representative in the central assembly. These proposal were hailed by hindus corners and were opposed by the extremists and were finally rejected by the all parties’ conference.
Mr. Jinnah, after overcoming his dejection convened in march 1929 session lf league and got his resolution passed. It is note worth that sir Muhammad shafi was also present and attended the session.
Future constitution of india should be federal with residuary powers vested in provinces.Uniform autonomy shall be granted to all provinces.Adequate and effective representation should be given to minority of all provinces in
all legislatives and elected bodies without rendering a majority in a minority in any province.1/3 muslim representation n central legislature.
Representation of communal group, through separate electorate. It should be open to any community at any time to abandon its separate electorate in favor of joint electorate.Any territorial redistribution that might any time be necessary should not affiant the muslim majority in Punjab Bengal and NWFP.
Full religious literate should be guaranteed to all communities.No bill or resolution or any part thereof should be passed in any legislature or any
elected body of 3/2 of the members of any community in that particular body opposed such bill resolution part there of on the ground that it would be injurious to the interests of that particular community.
Sindh should be separated from Bombay.Reforms should be introduced in balochistan and NWFP on the same fooling as in other provinces.Provinces should be made in constitution giving muslim an adequate share along
with other Indian in all the services of the state and in the local self government in central and provincial cabinets.1/3 muslims representation in central and provincial cabinet.Adequate safeguards for the protections of muslim culture, religion, education and laguage.No change should be made in the constitution by the central legislature except with the concurrence of the federal units.
There is nothing new in thee fourteen points but they are an elaborated and systematic draft of the delhi proposal plus some other demand put forward from time to time by the muslims on various political platform. These points constituted the entire political, constitutional and socio-cultural problems of the muslims confronting them. They also contain the
germs of the idea of Pakistan as they postulate the muslims as a separate identity on the base of these points. It was suggested that the political power and opportunities for development were to be equally divided among the hindus and muslim.
One fails to understand why an experienced politician could not regard the views and interests of the muslims while drafting the Nehru report. Actually he submitted to the pressure of the hindu mahasaba. Even a liberal and democratic leader like Jinnah was badly shocked by the recommendations of the Nehru report. He made last dither to save the hindu muslim unity, butl all his skills of statesmanship proved to be alone cry in the wilderness. Nehru report shattered all his political ideals and his hope for the close co-operation between hindus and muslims. His dreams of hindu muslim unity had shattered on the rock of nehru’s attitude. Hi aspiration for the political salivation of the Indian muslims was envisaged in his fourteen points. Congress attitude at this point came as a starting point of the permanent muslim separation from hindus.
The montage Chelmsford reforms of 1919 met a failure at the very out set, as they were not acceptable to the most of the political parities keeping in view, the failure of the reform and the ever increasing interest among the peoples the British government decided to introduce some constitutional changes before the expiry of the reforms.
APPOINTMENT AND THE COMPOSITION OF COMMISSION:
Toward the end of 1927, the Indian viceroy lord lrwin appointed a statutory commission headed by sir, john Simon to enquire in to the working and the future of the constitution of the commission included seven British, all members of parliament, the report of the commission was published in June 1930. It consisted of two volumes, the first include the survey
of the whole social problems and the second represented the commission’s recommendations.
INDIAN REACTION TOWARDS THE COMPOSITION OF COMMISSION:
The composition of the commission spread a wave of unrest all over the country. It was of course not wise on the part of British government to compose all white commission to find out the solution of the constitutional issue of the Indian people. Jinnah in his statement criticized the composition of the commission. The secretary of the state for India argued that all the members of the commission were honest, sagacious and unprejudiced and that nobody among Indians could represent the different sects of native people. In fact he made a satire that Indians could represent the different sects of native people. In fact he made a satire that
Indians were not capable of solving the constitutional issue through mutual understanding.
This remark of the lord Birkenhead led to the convening of all parties’ conference by the congress.
PROPOSALS OF THE SIMON COMMISSION:
i. The only political solution for the vat and varied land was that the future framework must be federal.
ii. The diarchy system should be abolished and the provinces should be given full autonomy. Legislatures should be popularly elected.
iii. The governor would be empowered to choose the ministers who commanded a majority in the assemblies.
iv. The prime minister would not be under the control of the governor. However in matter like the safety of the provinces and the protection of the minorities the governor could intervene.
v. The franchise was to be extended and provincial assemblies enlarged so as to facilitate the work of ministries.
vi. N.W.F.P would have a legislative council but not a responsible government.
vii. The question of separating sindh was to be further examined.
viii. Federal assembly should be elected by the provincial councils and each province should have three members in council of state.
ix. There would be not substantial change in the central executive and provincial councils would be shoulder the new heavy responsibilities.
x. A council of greater india representing both british india and the states would be set up for consultation in the matters of common concerns.
xi. The new constitution would be abkle to develop by itself. Hence the procedure of periodical enquiries into the working of constitution would not be needed.
It was greatly resented by the congress that authorized its working committee to start a civil disobedience movement. As a result violent demonstrations were held. The government declared the working committee unlawful and Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru were arrested.
The muslim showed mixed reaction the simon commission. They were opposed to the british government as well as hindu domination. They could not approve of simon commission report but they did not join the hindu movement.
Jinnah said, “We refuse to join Mr. Gandhi because his movement is not a movement for dependent of hindu maliasaba”
In the meantime labor party came into power and declared that simon commission report was not final and the matter would be finally decided after holding consultation with leaders representing all commission in india. This would be done at a round table conference in london.
IQBAL ADDRESS AT ALAHABAD
The muslims sentiments and political views manifested by by muslim league, the representative party of muslims in india, were based upon the two-nation theory put by sir syed ahmed khan. According to this theory, there were two big nations, hindus and muslims living in india and the ideas of two people from one nation was a blunder. This was the beliefs
which became the motive of the practical measures taken by the musilms and determine the lines of the muslim politics n the history of the sub-continent. The demand for separate electorates, reservation of muslim seats in muslim minority provinces and one third muslim representation
in the central legislature clearly showed that the muslims of india considered themselves to be separate nation from hindus. However some questions regarding two nation theories were still to be answered. What was the ideological basis on which the muslims should be considered a separate nation?
Nehru report fell very short of muslim expectations and the congress, instead of demanding autonomy to the province insisted on unitary system. Jinnah proposal for Nehru report were rejected. Jinnah uttered the prophetic sentences, “It is the parting of the ways”. He countered
Nehru report with his famous 14 points which represented aspiration of muslims.
MUSLIM LEAGUE ANNUAL SESSION AT ALLAHABAD ON DEC’ 30 1930:
It seemed as if the Muslims were hoarding towards a separate state but at best it was an uncertain picture. A clear concept was given by sir Muhammad iqbal in his presidential address at Allah bad session of all India Muslim leaguer on December 30, 1930. His conception
was not only clear but comprehensive in the sense as it had both geographical and ideological under tones.
Allama iqbal explained in his address that Islam not simply name of a few creeds the oral reorganization of which could make one an accomplished Muslim.
On the other hand, it has given it followers the concept of particular and a unique type of political society which covers al the phases of their life. The social covers al the phrases of their life. The social unanimity and the common spirit were two such elements which stitched the Muslims of India into one nation. They had the same cultural traditions, the same mode of
life, the same history and the same civilization. All these similarities made them quite distinct from Hindus. This was the reason that they could not merge themselves into another nation.
Naturally they wanted to maintain their entity as a separate nation and proper in compatibility to their own ideology. Allama iqbal also pointed out that Hindus who were in al respects different from Muslims wanted to gain an upper hand and, dominated the Muslims and was the very root cause of the large communal riots all over the sub-continent.
“I would like to see the Punjab NWFP. Sindh and Baluchistan amalgamated into single state; self government within the British Empire or without it. The formation of the consolidated north west Indian Muslim state appears to me to be the final destiny of the Muslim at least of North West India”
Thus, Dr. iqbal was the first man to propose formal politico-religious problems of the subcontinent argued to the idea of muslim state to be past Indian federation, if residuary power were vested the self-government state. It is important to be note that iqbal’ idea was the ideological
basis of the state. Although he had no ill-will towards communities yet he loved his own communal group. That is why he said, “the formation of the consolidated muslim state is in the best interet in india and islam, for
islam an opportunity to get rid of the stamp that Arabians imperialism was forced to give” His concept of Islamic state was extremely real and flexible. Islam was very liberal in his caption of islam. His classic book reconstruction religious thought in islam” testifies to this fact.
RE-CONSTRUCTION OF RELIGIOUS THOUGHTS IN ISLAM BY IQBAL:
As far as the permanent solution of the hindu muslim problem was concerned, allama iqbal proposed that the ambala division where non-muslim population formed a majority should be separated form the rest of the Punjabi province and that the west Punjab, these muslims formed a majority, NWFP, Baluchistan and sindh should be converted into ne province.
Thus quite a large muslim province would come into being and as the muslim therein would be able to lead a life of an alive and active nation, they would not insist on separate electorate. This was the only way to do away with the communal problems.
The practical value of iqbal’s concept of muslim state was greased by the muslims in the later year and later on it was adopted in the resolution of muslim leagtue known as pakistan. resolution. Alma iqbal gave a new vision and intellectual basis for their faith. His ideal was the establishment of a country based on Islamic values. Allama iqbal’s concept of islam was
different from the contemporary ulemas. He believed in sublime, human and liberal values of islam, the address of allama iqbal stands as a milestone on the path of freedom movement towards Pakistan.
The greatest historical significance of allama iqbal address was that it washed out all political confusions from the minds of Muslims thus enabling them to determine their new and clear cut destination and work out a definite program to achieve their goals. They began to realize their true status in the society.
Allama iqbal gave clear cut concept of two nation theory as enunciated by sir syed ahmed khan and warned the british government that;
“india I a continent of group belonging to different races, speaking different language and professing different religious. To introduce a constitution on the conception of homogeneous india would be to prepare her for a civil war”
In short in order to understand iqbal’s thesis, one has to keep in mind, the political, social, economic and constitutional development since 1857, which make muslims conscious of their miserable position in the sub-continent. Their political awareness acquired gradually makes them feel that they were not only a religious minority but a full nation like all other
nations in the word.
ROUND TABLE CONFERENCES
Simon commission submitted its report in 1929 which was rejected as there was not Indian member on the commission’ quaid-e-azam wrote to British Prime Minister Ramsay Mc. Donald to declare in clear terns the features of the future constitution of India and include some Indian members in the commission.
Lord Irwin, the viceroy of India, visited England and declared British government intention to give dominion status to India and for this purpose, he announced round table conference at London comprising Indian and British representatives to solve different issues.
Muslim league welcomed the declaration but congress wanted and demanded the enforcement of Nehru report in entirely as the constitution. Congress in it meeting in December 1929 announced for its campaign and Jan 1, 1930 celebrated as Independence Day which was a complete failure. Gandhi announced to start a civil disobedience. Gandhi and other leaders
were arrested and congress working committee was declared unlawful.
ROUND TABLE CONFERENCE 🙁 12-nov-1930)-(19-jan-1931)
Total 89 members: 58 from different communities and rest from princely status and british members of political parties. Muslim representatives were Aha khan, quaid-e-azam, Muhammad ali jauhar, sir Muhammad shafi and hindu representatives were taj bahadur sapru— all other minorities were represented. Congress was not invited. Some of its leaders were
arrested and other were busy in civil disobedience. Sir taj bahadur sapru demanded:
i. Dominion status for india.
ii. Responsible government at center.
iii. Federal system of government.
Quaid-e-azam and sir M. shafi agreed these demands. Thus the basic structure of future constitution was laid smoothly. 8 sub-committees were appointed to draw the constitution, dealing with federal structure, provincial constitution, franchise, sindh, NWFP, and defense.
However conference failed to decide about the future of minorities because of the stern attitude of hindu mahasaba. Thus session closed on jan, 19 1931 with british prime minister’s recommendations:
i. India would be given status of loose federations under british controlled center
ii. Indian states and british india would be allowed for divergent systems of administration.
iii. Most of the important matters would be left to the internal control of the provinces and status as constitutional members of the federation.
Mr. Muhammad ali jauhar died in the course of 1st round table conference.
GANDHI-IRWIN PACT (DELHI-MARCH 1931)
Congress was absent form the 1st round table conference. Although some of the matters had been declared in the conference-yet no one considered the proposal final. British government realized that the co-operation of congress was imperative for further advancement on the formation of the constitution thus, Gandhi was released unconditionally under Gandhi Irwin
pact 1931 and an agreement was made.
i. Congress would give up civil disobedience.
ii. Congress would participate in 2nd RTC.
iii. Congress could persuade people through peaceful means to buy indigenous goods.
iv. All ordnance issued by the government to curb congress would be withdrawn.
v. Withdrawal of all notifications declaring certain associations unlawful.
vi. All political detainees released.
vii. Prosecution relating to offences not involving violence would be withdrawn.
The Gandhi Irwin pact was on one hand a serious blow to the british authority in india and on other hand it had redouble the Gandhi influence in the political developments in the country.
2ND COUNTRY TABLE CONFERENCE:(sep 07,1931—aug 04,1931)
Gandhi adopted on unrealistic attitude in his speech made on 15th about communal problem, he claimed that being the leader of the congress, he was the sole representative of all Indian. Gandhi did not want to talk about the communal problem. On the stress of british prime minister, he presented Nehru report with slight a change which was opposed vehemently by muslims and other minorities. Thus british prime minister intended to lay down his own scheme known as communal award. Quaid-e-azam did not atted this session. He left Indian politiccs and had settled in England as a professional lawyer.
COMMUNAL AWARDS: (aug 04’ 1932)
On the concluding day of 2nd session, prime minister declared the settlement of the representation of communities.
i. Separate electorate to be maintained
ii. Reservation of seat for backward communities.
iii. Reservation of muslim seats in hindu majority provinces and of hindu in muslim majority provinces but the distribution of seats was not made in proportion to the population.
iv. Sindh separation from Bombay.
Communal awards were not up to the muslims expectation but it approximated more closely to muslim demands rather than to hindus desires. Muslim league accept it. It was quit distasteful to non-muslims in Punjab, particularly sikh. Gandhi had been arrested and sent to jail by the new viceroy.
3RD ROUND TABLE CONFERENCE: (nov 17’ 1932)
Labor opposition boycotted this session and congress was too absent. Report of various committees came under discussion. Conference ended on the eve of Christmas. In 1933, government published white paper containing the recommendations of three round table conferences. The white paper was discussed and sent for royal assent. It was passed as
the act of 1935 and was introduced in Indian on 24th july, same year.
Act of 1935:
In 1933 the british government announced its proposed constitutional reforms to be introduced in india. Lord Linlithgo was appointed as the chairman of the committee of the british parliament. The committee submitted its report In 1934 which was the basis of Indian act of 1935. Indian act of 1935 was a lenghty document containing 32 section and 10 schedules. It was fullu enforced on 1st april 1936 during the general elections.
CIRCUMISTANCES LEADING TO THE PASSING OF THE ACT:
I. The act of 1919 failed:
The act of 1919 did not make much change in the center. There was no appreciable increase on the power of the legislatures. Diarchy was defective in principle.
II. Repressive attitude of the rulers.
The rawlatt act, jallianwala bagh tragedy, martial law and the other happenings added to the resentment of the people.
III. Recommendations of simon commission:
Indian did not accept the simon commission as there was no Indian member in the commission and its recommendations were also rejected by the Indians.
FEATURES OF THE ACT:
The act provided a complete type of federal constitution. It proposed an all india federation. All there province were to joint it while the entry of the status was voluntary.
THREE LISTS OF SUBJECTS:
The act provided three lists of the subjects. The federal, provincial and the concurrent list. It provided a diarchy at the center while it was done away with in provinces.
THE SUBJECT OF THE VICCEORY:
Federal subject such as defense, foreign affairs, ecclesiastic and administration of tribal areas were the exclusive functions of the viceroy which he was to discharge with the assistance of not more than three councilors to be appointed by him. In other subjects he was to be
aided by the federal ministers.
BICAMERAL FEDERAL LEGISLATURE:
Federal subjects such as defense, foreign affairs, ecclesiastic and administration of tribal areas were the exclusive functions of the viceroy which he was to discharge with the assistance of not more than three councilors to be appointed by him. In other subject he was to be aided by the federal ministers.
BICAMERAL FEDERAL LEGISLATURE:
The federal legislature was to bicameral consisting of the federal assembly and the council of eth state. The former was to have a life of 5 year from the late of its first meeting.
However, governor general was authorized to extend its life span.
The council of states was a permanent body which 1/3 members were to be retired after every 3 years. The member from princely states was to be nominated by the rulers, while the representatives from the british india were to be elected.
PATTERM PF ELECTIONS:
The hindu, muslims and Sikhs were to be elected on communal lives, the members of federal assembly were to be indirectly elected.
POWERS OF ELECTIONS:
The powers of both the houses were strictly restricted at there were 80% non-votable items of the federal budget.
ESTABLISHMENT OF FEDERAL COURT:
The act provided for the establishment of the federal court with the jurisdiction over the states and the provinces as well.
ABOLITION OF THE INDIAN COUNCIL OF SEC OF STATE:
The act abolished the Indian council of secretary of state and the secretary was given advisor who may or may not be consulted. The governors were made responsible through the governor general to the secretary of the states.
A RIGIID CONSTITUTION:
The constitution was rigid and only the british government could amend it. The provinces were given autonomy, but it was as restricted as the control autonomy was.
SINDH SEPARATED FROM BOMBAY:
Sindh was separated from Bombay and was made a separate province. Thus a first step toward a separate homeland for muslim occurred.
N.W.F.P WITH FULL PROVINCIAL POWER:
Burma and Aden were constitutionally separated from India. They had been previously governed under one governor general . Orissa was also declared a separate province.
The most prominent feature of the constitution was that the provinces got separate constitutional constituencies/ entities under the act. The act had enshrined three list of subjects, the federal, provincial and concurrent list. Provincial list was the exclusive jurisdiction of provinces while both the federal legislature and provincial legislature could legislate about the
subjects in concurrent list, but in case of any contradiction between the federal and the provincial law, the later would stand annulled.
The financial decisions of resources between center and provinces were designed to strengthen the financial independence of the provinces.
The right of franchise were enlarged at provincial level by lowering the property qualification.
Separation of sindh form Bombay and full provincial power to NWFP was an important step toward the demand of a separate homeland for muslims.
Provinces were given a council of ministers and it advice was made building on the governor except when he acted in his discretion.
The system of diarchy was abolished single cabinet at the province was made responsible to administer province and governor was to act on its advice.
CONGRESS AND MUSLIM LEAGUE RESPONSE:
Although under it, india had her first taste and practice of parliamentary self-government but it failed to appease congress and muslim league.
i. Mr. Jinnah described it a thoroughly rotten, fundamentally bad and totally unacceptable.
ii. Raja gopal acharia said, “the new constitution is worse than diarchy”
iii. Mr. Nehru condemned it as “a new chapter of slavery. It was machine with strong brakes and engine”
Under this act, elections fro provincial assemblies were held in 1937. By deciding to contest these elections, the congress and muslim league formally accepted the provisions of the act.
The implementation of the part of the 1935 act which relate to the center was suspended. The criticism was made especially on the system of putting the nominees of the native rulers in the federal legislature, special responsibilities and discretionary powers of the governor any provision of automatic growth in development of self-government.
Thus, through the act was an important step toward domination states, it fell for lost of the expectations of the Indians.
CONGRESS IN POLITICS:
In 1937 congress formed ministries in 8 provinces out of 11. The day when congress leaders accepted offices a new chapter of strained hindu-muslim relations opened in the history of india, drunk with powers, the congress did not only alienate the musilms but also adopted such measure and policies which were directly injurious to their social, political and religious
sensibilities. In the word of an Indian Christian. “the congress was at that time, the Indian counter part of the nazi party in Germany”
Congress refused to accept the government after her victory in elections and demanded a guarantee that governor will not exercise their special powers. Finally the agreement was concluded known as “gentleman’s agreement” by Gandhi. Apart from major issues, governors were allowed to intervene.
MINISTERS NOT REPONSEBLE TO LEGISLATURE:
Under the congress rule, ministers were not responsible to the electorates or popularly elected legislatures, rather they were answerable to congress working committee which appointed and dismissed ministers.
i. THREE COLOURD FLAG:
Congress hoisted three colored flag on all official and important non official buildings to show that congress was the only representative organization of Indian people. The flag became the cause of hindu muslim riots at the various places.
ii. BANDE MATRUM:
Banday matrum song was introduced as a war cry against the muslims. Thus hindus majorities in the legislature of the congress provinces insisted on commencing the day’s deliberation with the recital of the bande matrum. The context from which it was called wounded muslim susceptibilities.
iii. INTRODUTION OF HINDI:
Congress raised the standard of hindi as an official language. Ever since 1835, urdu had been employed as a court language over the greater part of northern india, but the prejudicial hindu sought it to replace with hindi. The muslims. The elimination of urdu would mean a step toward the annihilation of the cultural inheritance of the muslims in india.
iv. LIASION CAMPAIGN:
Under this program, the congress leaders WOULD HAVE A DIRECT LINK WITH mulims AND TRY TO REMOVE THEIR “narrow mindedness” and prejudice against hindus. The muslim leaguers were offered minister but they had to sign unconditionally the congress pledge. The congress used maulvi’s to create split among muslims.
v. WIDDIA MANDIR SCHEME:
It was an educational policy introduced in congress provinces for the students belonging to all sects and religious. It was a dangerous plot. It deviating non-hindus, especially muslim from their religion and to convert them into Hinduism the young people were compelled to fold their hands before gandhi’s picture and sing his praises. The book edited for children
expressed the greatness of Hinduism.
vi. PROHIBITION OF COW SLAUGHTER:
The prohibition of cow slaughter was announced and criminal laws were enacted for the defiant of this rule. This law was against the religious belief of the muslim.
Congress kept itself involved in making intrigues against the muslim majority province, Punjab, sindh and Bengal were ruled by muslim parties but congress remained busy in making conspiracies so as to fail their government.
viii. HINDU-MUSLIM RIOTS:
The communal riots increased in congress governed provinces. Muslims could not expect justice in the courts. Till autumn of 1939 there had been 57 communal riots with 1700 causalities.
ix. THE MERIT PRINCIPLES:
The merit principle worked to the determent of the muslims alone as they were educationally lagging behind. Muslim civil servants security of tenure was threatened.
x. HINDRANCE IN MUSLIM RELIGIOUS ACTIVITES:
Azan was forbidden in the mosques, noise was made in front of mosques at the times of prayers. Hindus took hold of some mosque.
I. It was direct and practical proof of hindu militant nationalism.
II. It proved that congress was a communal organization and believed in the establishment of hindu raj.
III. Hollowness and duplicity of congress doctrines and Indian nationalism exposed.
IV. The british were convinced with more proof of the two nation theory.
V. The unbridgeable gulf of communal rivalry became wider then ever.\
VI. It gave political consciousness to the muslim masses and muslim league emerged as a popular organization due to more unity among people.
VII. Muslim league police under went a radical change. they no longer wanted Indian federation envisioned in 1935 act.
VIII. Hindu raj pushed muslims very close to their ultimate destiny of creation of Pakistan.
IX. Arrogant and unwise policy of congress precipitated the partition of india and emergence of Pakistan.
DELEGATION INTO HINDU ATTROCITIES:
Special committee of eight members was appointed under raja pirpur to collect all information and submit their report from time to time. It included summary accounts of events in all the congress provinces except the NWFP. The information supplied was based on the personal
enquires made by the committee. It reported that congress had failed to inspire confidence in minorities.
The sharif report confined its field of inquiry in bihar. It contained horrifying accounts of the congress high handedness. It showed the involvement of local congress leaders administrative and judicial servants incidents.
FAZLUL HAQ’ MUSLIM SUFFEREINGS UNDER CONGRESS RULE:
It was pamphlet containing the congress, began by imposing their will on muslim ministries.
Azan was forbidden in certain areas, worshippers were attacked holding of noisy processions before the mosques at prayers times. Pigs were thrown into mosque. Muslims shop were boycott. Officials’ investigation was always based in favor on hindus.
END OF CONGRESS RULE:
In sep, 1939, britian declared war against germane. The war situation not only demanded complete peace and order in british colonies but also full support from the people of these territories to turn the war results in favor of british. The british government wantedto satisfy both hindus and muslims. The british government needed a large scale army recruitment at it was for this reason that it would not annoy muslim league. Thus viceroy made the announcement that the views of even political party would be considered in making of any constitution in future. Thus the league demand that no future constitution would be adopted unless it got the approval of the muslim league, wa indirectly accepted by the british independence
of india by creating hindu-muslim problem.
Congress expressed it utter disappointment and in it meeting on 22 October 1939 advised the congress ministers to resign from their offices as a protest. This is November 1939. Congress ministries resigned.
THE DAY OF DELIVERANCE:
Quaid-e-azam appealed the muslims of india to observe a deliverance day on December 22 1939 and expressed their relief at the termination of the congress rule which had been too hostile during the last two years. The deliverance day was successfully observed throughout the country.
K.K aziz observes, “many writers are of the opinion that refused the share power with the league led to the creation of Pakistan”
As its annual session-historic in retrospect —at Lahore, the league for the first time adopted idea of the partition as its final goal. Jinnah’s presidential address is a landmark in history of muslim nationalism in india.
In February 1940, the council of muslim league, in its meeting at delhi decided to convince the 27th annual session of muslim league in which a resolution for the partition of india would be adopted. Sir sikander hayat was to head the committee which was empowered to draft the
resolution. This resolution was sent to Jinnah for his approval and he referred it to the subject committee for consideration. This committee passed it with some amendments.
AIML SESSION AT LAHORE:
The fateful and historical session of all india muslim league was held from 21st march—24th march 1940 at minto park at Lahore. Jinnah presided over the session on 23rd march. The famous Lahore resolution was moved by maulvi A.K. fazull haq chqudhary khaliq-uz-zaman seconded it. Then different leaders of muslim from different areas of india supported the
resolution. The resolution said that. “north western and eastern zone of india should be grouped to constitue independent state in which the constituted units shall be autonomous and sovereign” The resolution in fact used the term independent state rather than the word “state” JINNAH ADDRESSES:
Quaid-e-azam in his presidential address said: “muslims are a nation according to any definition of nations and they must have their homeland, their territory and their state…we wish our people to develop to fullest of our spiritual, cultural, social, and political life in way that we think best and in consonance with our own ideals and according to the wishes of people”
THE RESOLUTION PROVED TO BE A MILESTONE IN THE CREATION OF PAKISTAN
Stream line the politics of inidian muslims. Quaid-e-azam and the muslim league zealously visualize their future. Jinnah further said in his presidential address:
“the muslim of india stood unequivocally for the freedom of india, but it must be freedom for all sections. It the hindu were to be freed and the muslims were then to be slaved it wa hardly a freedom for which the muslims could be asked to fight. The muslims were a nation by any definition.
Jinnah further explained,
“the problem of india could not be solved if it was treated as an inter-communal problem. It was, in fact, an international issue and must be dealt with as such. The hindus and muslim could ever evolved—as common nationality was an idle dream”
The hindus and muslims belong to two different religious philosophies, they neither intermarry nor inter-dine. Their concepts of life and on life are different. They have different epics, different heroes and different episodes very often the heroes of one is the foe of the other and their victories and defeats overlap. Muslims are a nation according to any definition and
they must have their homeland, their territory and their state”
I. Indian papers published it under the headlines of “Pakistan resolution”. Some papers called it an absurd scheme.
II. The hindu times wrote that to break up the unity of india is not to satisfy the ambitions of this community or that, but ruin the peace of the people.
I. In Britain, the resolutions were unnoticed. Very few papers published a summary of it. Manchester guardian accused Jinnah of re-establishing the reign of chaos in Indian politics.
II. The most favorable comments appeared in NATURE.
III. The time held the congress politics responsible for the emergence of muslims as separate nation.
IV. The economist also chastised congress for denying the existence of minorities.
The congress opposed the league’s thesis. Gandhi instigated prejudice against plan by calling in the vivisection of the mother land and cutting of the mother cow. Congress questioned the economic viability of the proposed state. There were some hindus who viewed the demand for the partition as a bargaining counter. The congress arrested that the muslim community did not desired to e asserted by the muslim league.
The Pakistan resolution I the natural off shoot of the negative attitude of the congress and the mahasaba adopted the muslims. : and there been any of the least similarly between the two communities. The rapprochement would not have taken place at one stage or the other. Sik and Buddhists reconciled with hindus because they had some common cultural
traits. But the case with muslims was quit different.
In short, it was through this resolution—indian muslims committed themselves to the establishment of Pakistan as its final goal.
For more Notes click here.