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SHAH WALI ULLAH (1703-1762)
The movement of shah waliullah was the first of its kind in the sub-continent which aimed mainly at socio-politico-religio and economic reformation of the degenerated Muslim community.
The departure of aurangzaib from the scene of mughals empire caste a havoc not only for the future of Mughals Empire but also for the future of Islam and Muslims of the India.
CAUSES OF MUSLM DECLINE:
i. Nobles of Humayun (Iranian)
ii. Petticoat government influence
iii. Lack of understanding religion in its proper perspective and true spirit.
iv. Emergence of rich class of feudal lords and nobles sank.
v. Revision from the principle of khilafat to kingship.
vi. Sectarian conflicts
vii. Money obtained from the exchequer by those who do not perform any corresponding duty-people such as ulemas and sufis
viii. Heavy taxation of peasants, merchant and workers. The prosperity of country depends on light taxes.
To address the situation shah wali ullah aimed at a moral, social and political regeneration of mulsims in the true spirit of Islam, so that ideally equitable and social system could be brought in vogue.
- CRUSADE AGAINST SECTARIANISM:
The entire, Muslim community was rift from top to bottom, the nobles
grouped themselves into turani and irani parties-which were euphemisms for Sunni and Shia and common, soldiers and citizen also were affected. Shah Wali ullah tried to wipe out differences
based on religious convictions. He wrote “izalat-ul-khifa” and – “khilafat-il-khilafat” to remove misunderstanding between Shia and Sunni.
- TRANSLATION OF QUARAN IN TO PERSIAN:
The differences between on the minute of details of interpretation were magnified in to disputes. These controversies on minor issues tended to take the mind of the believers from the fundamentals and instead of uniting them, created division in their ranks. He emphasized on the fundamentals of Islam. He introduced the people once again to the main sources of Islamic doctrine and law. In order to make it understandable to all, he translated Quran into Persian.
- BALANCE BETWEEN FOUR SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT:
He wrote AL INSAF FI BAYAN SAHABAL IKHTILAF in order to create balance Between the four schools-hanbali, shafi and maliki. He was also opposed to limiting the University of the Applications of the injunctions of the holy Quran.
- SCHOOL OF HADITH:
He established a school for study of Hadith. He selected imam malik’s ALMA WATA as the most authentic of all collections of hadith and took steps to popularize its study.
- REINTRODUCED ITTHAD:
It had been established by the then orthodox circles that after the final codification of Islamic law by the four great jursts, the doors of interpretation were closed for ever. He denounced this principle and adopted Ijtihad richly.
- CONTROVERSY BETWEEN SUFIS AND ULEMAS:
Whah waliullah tried to reconcile the controversy between sufis and ulemas about wahdatul-wajood and wahdatul-shahood.
- SOCIAL-MORAL REGENERATION:
It was enough to remove doctrinal differences among the Muslims. Since they were plunged, in a moral crisis, which lead to grave dimensions. He presented Islam in a rational manner and urged the Muslim masses to mould their lives accordingly to the teachings of Islam.
Shah Waliullah pointed out that economics played a vital role in the social life of human beings. He raised his voice for economic equilibrium, removal of inequalities and equal distribution of wealth. He appealed higher classes to realize their responsibilities towards the
nation. He was against heavy taxes and accumulation of wealth.
- IMPORTANCE OF JIHAD:
He educated the Muslims on importance of jihad and asked them to go for jihad for glorification Islam.
A part from his religious services, shah wali ullah provided leadership to the Muslims in the political field. He came out with his great wisdom and foresight to create political awaking in the Muslims of India the rise of Marathas and Sikhs had posed serious problems to
the Muslim rulers. The mughals rulers were no more in a position to with hold the supremacy of the Muslim rule which was gravely jeopardized by the emergence of marhattas raided Delhi,
the capital of the Mulghal Empire, the marhattas wanted to crush the Muslims ruler forever.
Shah Wali ullah came up to tackle the precious situation. He had rightly noticed that if the Marathas were not checked effectively, the political powers of the Muslim would disappear forever. He wrote letters to the noble Muslims leaders and informed them of the critical situation hanging on the head of the mughalss rule. He asked formulating assistance and was successful in bringing some Muslims leader sound. He eventually won over najib-ud-daula and
shuja-ud-din against marahattas. However the Muslims chiefs were unable to face Marattas. The resources were inadequate to
crush the Marattas. Shah Waliullah, therefore, looked towards Ahmed shah abdali, who came in India and inflicted a crushing defeat on Marattas on the third battle of panipat in 1761. The victory blasted the Marattas power and paved way for the revival of Islam in India.
The movement of political as well as spiritual regeneration did not die with shah waliullah his talented son, shah abdul aziz and his worthy disciples and successors strove for the realization of his mission. The echo of the third battle of panipat was heared in the battle of ballakot. Both are the landmarks of the same struggle”
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