Q1.Make a precise of the following passage in about one third of its length and
suggest a suitable heading.
It was not from want of perceiving the beauty of external nature but from the different
way of perceiving it, that the early Greeks did not turn their genius to portray, either in
colour or in poetry, the outlines, the hues, and contrasts of all fair valley, and hold cliffs,
and golden moons, and rosy lawns which their beautiful country affords in lavish
Primitive people never so far as I know, enjoy when is called the picturesque in nature,
wild forests, beetling cliffs, reaches of Alpine snow are with them great hindrances to
human intercourse, and difficulties in the way of agriculture. They are furthermore the
homes of the enemies of mankind, of the eagle, the wolf, or the tiger, and are most
dangerous in times of earthquake or tempest. Hence the grand and striking features of
nature are at first looked upon with fear and dislike.
I do not suppose that Greeks different in the respect from other people, except that the
frequent occurrence of mountains and forests made agriculture peculiarly difficult and
intercourse scanty, thus increasing their dislike for the apparently reckless waste in
nature. We have even in Homer a similar feeling as regards the sea, — the sea that
proved the source of all their wealth and the condition of most of their greatness. Before
they had learned all this, they called it “the unvintagable sea” and looked upon its shore
as merely so much waste land. We can, therefore, easily understand, how in the first
beginning of Greek art, the representation of wild landscape would find no place,
whereas, fruitful fields did not suggest themselves as more than the ordinary
background. Art in those days was struggling with material nature to which it felt a
There was nothing in the social circumstances of the Greeks to produce any revolution
in this attitude during their greatest days. The Greek republics were small towns where
the pressure of the city life was not felt. But as soon as the days of the Greeks republics
were over, the men began to congregate for imperial purposes into Antioch, or
Alexandria, or lastly into Rome, than we seek the effect of noise and dust and smoke
and turmoil breaking out into the natural longing for rural rest and retirement so that
from Alexander’s day …… We find all kinds of authors — epic poets, lyricist, novelists
and preachers — agreeing in the precise of nature, its rich colours, and its varied
sounds. Mohaffy: Rambles in Greece
Q2. Read the following passage and answer the questions given at the end in
your own words.
Poetry is the language of imagination and the passions. It relates to whatever gives
immediate pleasure or pain to human min. it comes home to the bosoms and business
of men: for nothing but what comes home to them in the most general and intelligible
shape can be a subject of poetry. Poetry is the universal language which the heart holds
with nature and itself. He who has a contempt for poetry cannot have much respect for
himself or for anything else. Whatever there is a sense of beauty, or power, or harmony,
as in the motion of the waves of the sea, in the growth of a flower, there is a poetry in its
birth. If history is a grave study, poetry may be said to be graver, its materials lie
deeper, and are spread wider. History treats, for the most part, cumbersome and
unwieldy masses of things, the empty cases in which the affairs of the world are
packed, under the heads of intrigue or war, in different states, and from century to
century but there is no thought or feeling that can have entered into the mind of man
which he would be eager to communicate to others, or they would listen to with delight,
that is not a fit subject for poetry. It is not a branch of authorship: it is “the stuff of which
our life is made”. The rest is mere oblivision, a dead letter, for all that is worth
remembering gin life is the poetry of it. Fear is Poetry, hope is poetry, love is poetry;
hatred is poetry. Poetry is that fine particle within us that expands, refines, raises our
whole being; without “man’s life is poor as beasts”. In fact, man is a poetical animal. The
child Is a poet when he first plays hide and seek, or repeats the story of Jack the Giant
Killer, the shepherd – boy is a poet when he first crowns his mistress with a garland of
flowers; the countryman when he stops he stops to look at the rainbow; the miser when
he hugs his gold; the courtier when he builds his hope upon a smile; the vain, the
ambitious the proud, the choleric man, the hero and the coward, the beggar and the
king, all live in a world of their own making; and the poet does no more than describe
what all others think and act. Hazlitt
(a) In what sense is poetry the language of the imagination and the passion?
(b) How is poetry the Universal Language of the heart?
(c) What is the difference between history and poetry?
(d) Explain the phrase: “Man is a poetical animal”.
(e) What are some of the actions which Hazlitt calls poetry and its doers poet?
(f) Explain the followings underlined expression in the passage.
(i) It relates to whatever gives immediate pleasure or pain to human heart
(ii) A sense of beauty, or power, or harmony.
(iii) Cumbersome and unwieldy masses of things.
(iv) It is the stuff of which our life is made.
(v) The poet does no more than describe what all others think and act.
Q3. Write a comprehensive note (250 – 300) on ONE of the following subjects.
(a) Modern history registers so primary and rapid changes that it cannot repeat itself.
(b) “The golden rule is that there is no golden rule”. G. B. Shaw
(c) Crisis tests the true mettle of man
(d) It is excellent to have a giant’s strength; but it is tyrannical to use it like a giant.
Q4. Correct the following sentences.
(a) His wisdom consisted of his handling the dangerous situation successfully
(b) Many a girls were appearing in the examination.
(c) The vehicles run fastly on the Motorway.
(d) Smoking is injurious for health.
(e) He availed of this situation very intelligently.
(f) The black vermin is an odious creature.
(g) What to speak of meat, even, vegetables were not available now.
(h) No sooner we left our home when it started raining.
(i) Little money I had I spent on the way.
(j) The criminal was sent on the goal.
Q5. Use FIVE of the following in sentences to make their meaning clear.
(i) The teeming meanings
(ii) To kick the bucket
(iii) To push to the walls
(iv) To read between the lines
(v) To be at daggers drawn
(vi) To throw down the gauntlet
(vii) To be a Greek
(viii) To stand on ceremony
(ix) From the horse’s mouth
(x) To carry the cross
Q6. Use FIVE of the following pairs of words in sentences.
- Brooch, broad
- Collusion, collision
- Fain, feign
- Hoard, horde
- Illusion, delusion
- Persecute, prosecute
- Prescribe, proscribe
- Respectfully, respectively
- Complacent, complaisant
- Sweating away as usual
- Health first, exam second
- Can you study while confined to bed.
- Has anyone be marketed anywhere?
- An unwanted commodity
- As long as there is life, there is hope.
- You will become a thin, gaunt, half-blind weakling with sunken cheeks and
- Once again grow into a rose-cheeked young man.
- There is no deviation form it.
- The paring of ways.
Q7. Read the following dialogue and place the following words in it at proper places.
- Good morning Waseem ___________________and looking pale. Come out in the
- I am sorry, Nadeem. I cannot do that. The examination is drawing near and I want to
urilize every minute for its preparation.
- To hell with exam _______
- Well, health is good but failure is bad. Therefore, one should take books and study
them for the University exam.
- Suppose you grow into a bookworm and as a result fall ill. _______
Again, many boys work hard and get degrees. Do you think they get jobs. Our society is
flooded with graduates but _______? They are roaming about with
degrees in their hands. They are ____.
- Well. Degree is an ornament in itself, job or no job. Besides, there is no need to be
hopeless. I am sure when I get a degree with a good grade, I am sure to get a job in a
Government office or in a private firm. You know that _______.
- Well, how should I explain to you the blessing of a good health. If you continue
treading on this path, _______. Please come into the fresh air take
exercise and play some game and _______ Don’t grow old prematurely.
- Please listen, I want to be a graduate this year, now or never. I have made up my mind
for this and _______.
- Well, if this is your aim, then _______.
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