Q1. MAKE A PRÉCIS OF THE FOLLOWING PASSAGE IN ABOUT ONE-THIRD OF ITS LENGTH. Suggest a suitable title also.
Besant describing the middle class of the 9th century wrote ” In the first place it was for more a class apart. “In no sense did it belong to society. Men in professions of any kind (except in the Army and Navy) could only belong to society by right of birth and family connections; men in trade—bankers were still accounted tradesmen—could not possibly belong to society. That is to say, if they went to live in the country they were not called upon by the county families and in the town they were not admitted by the men into their clubs, or by ladies into their houses… The middle class knew its own place,
respected itself, made its own society for itself, and cheerfully accorded to rank the deference due.”
Since then, however, the life of the middle classes had undergone great changes as their numbers had swelled and their influence had increased. Their already well –developed consciousness of their own importance had deepened. More critical than they had been in the past of certain aspects of aristocratic life, they wee also more concerned with the plight of the poor and the importance of their own values of society, thrift, hand work, piety and respectability thrift, hand work, piety and respectability as examples of ideal behavior for the guidance of the lower orders. Above all they were respectable. There were divergences of opinion as to what exactly was respectable and what was not. There were, nevertheless, certain conventions, which were universally recognized: wild and drunker behaviors were certainly not respectable, nor were godlessness or avert promiscuity, not an ill-ordered home life, unconventional
manners, self-indulgence or flamboyant clothes and personal adornments.
Q2. Read the following passage and answer the questions given at the end in your own words.
The vitality of any teaching, or historical movement, depends upon what it affirms rather than upon what it affirms rather than upon what it denies, and its survival and continued power will often mean that its positives are insufficiently regarded by opposing schools.
The grand positives of Bentham were benevolence and veracity: the passion for the relief of man’s estate, and the passion for truth. Bent ham’s multifarious activities, pursued without abatement to the end of a long life, wee inspired by a “dominant and all-comprehensive desire for the amelioration of human life”; they wee inspired, too, by
the belief that he had found the key to all moral truth. This institution, this custom, this code, this system of legislation– does it promotes human happiness? Then it is sound.
This theory, this creed, this moral teaching – does it rightly explain why virtue is admirable, or why duty is obligatory? The limitation of Bentham can be gauged by his dismissal of all poetry (and most religion) as “misrepresentation’; this is his negative side. But benevolence and veracity are Supreme Values, and if it falls to one of the deniers to be their special advocate, the believers must have long been drowsed.
Bentham believes the Church teaches children insincerity by making them affirm what they cannot possibly understand or mean. They promise, for example, to fulfill the undertaking of their god—parents, that they will “renounce the devil and all his works,
the pomps and vanity of this wicked world” etc. ‘The Devil” Bentham comments: ” who or what is he, and how is it that he is renounced?” Has the child happened to have any dealings with him? Let the Archbishop of Canterbury tell us, and let him further explain
how his own “works” are distinguished from the aforesaid “Pomps and Vanity”. What king, what Lords Temporal or Spiritual, have ever renounced them? (Basil Willey)
(a) What does the writer mean by the following expressions:
Multifarious activities, amelioration of human Life, it is sound, be their special advocate,
Renounce the devil, drowsed, gauged, aforesaid.
(a) On what grounds does Bentham believe that the Church
(b) What is Bentham’s philosophy based upon?
(c) What according to the writer is Bentham’s limitation? Teaches children insincerity?
(d) In what context has the Archbishop of Canterbury been quoted i.e. is he praised or condemned?
Q3. Write a comprehensive note (250 –300 words) on ONE of the following subjects:
(a) Society is produced by our wants and government by our wickedness (Thomas Pain).
(b) We learn from history that we do not learn from history. (Hegel)
(c) Liberty doesn’t work as well in practice as it does in speeches. (Will Rogers)
(d) Politics is strife of interests masquerading as a contest of principles. (Ambrose Pierce)
Q4. Correct the following sentences:
(a) The lake free zed rapidly.
(b) The firm was unwilling to forego its usual commission.
(c) We watched the lambs gamble on the green.
(d) He belonged to the gild of carpenters.
(e) He hadn’t ought to have spoken.
(f) Is this his half – brother?
(g) Hay! Watch out for the car!
(h) This is the historical spot where he was shot dead.
(i) We bought a Japanee print.
(j) Fresh flowers smell sweetly.
Q5. Use any FIVE of the following idioms in sentences to make their meaning clear:
(i) Blow one’s top,
(ii) A cock-and-bull story,
(iii) Find one’s feet,
(iv) Call it a night,
(v) The tip of the iceberg,
(vi) Below par,
(vii) From pillar to post,
(viii) Hang up,
(ix) Turn some one in,
(x) By and by.
Q6. Use FIVE of the following pairs of words in sentences of your own to bring out the difference:
- Knead, need;
- Queue, cue;
- quarts, quartz;
- choral, coral;
- discrete, discreet;
- epoch, epic;
- Libel, liable;
- male, mail;
- banned, band;
- barred, bard;
Q7. Complete the conversation with the correct idiom in the correct form:
Keep regular hours, an unearthly hour, the small hours, a night owl, have a night out, at any moment, have one’s moments, have a minute to all one’s own, a night on the town, on the spur of the moment: “morning, Paul! You look tired”. “Yes I am. I had a late night last night. I’m not usually——————but I ———————– —— with some friends yesterday. I have been so busy
all week that I’ve hardly———————————- , so I really enjoyed ——————————————–. I start work early, so I usually ————– ——- —— — but yesterday was an exception. I didn’t think. I got into bed and must have fallen asleep, because the next thing I knew my landlady was shaking me, saying she was sorry to wake me at such———————————– , but she thought there was a burglar in the kitchen”.
“Well where was her husband?”
“Mr. Dick’s working on the night-shift, and I was the only man in the house. I am usually a coward, but I do———————————–, so I grabbed my tennis racket, which was the only thing I could think of —————————–, and crept downstairs”.
” I saw a dark figure in the kitchen with a knife in his hand, ready to strike—————————— . I was just about to hit him with the racket, when a voice shouted out, ” “Hey! It’s me! It was Mr. Dick. He had forgotten his sandwiches”.
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