CSS International Relations 2019 Question: Discuss the concept of Idealism. Explain its core perceptions and define its agenda of peace for the stability of the world.
Idealism is the metaphysical view that associates reality to ideas in mind rather than to material objects. Philosophical views of Berkeley and Christian Science embrace idealist thought as they relate to the existence of a supreme, divine reality that exceeds basic human understanding and deep-rooted sensory awareness.
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Concept of Idealism
Idealism stands for improving the course of international relations by eliminating war, hunger, inequality, tyranny, suppression, and violence from international relations. To remove these evils is the objective before humankind. Idealism accepts the possibility of creating a world free from these evils by depending upon reason and science. Two basic forms of idealism are metaphysical idealism, which maintains the duality of reality and epistemological idealism, which holds that in knowledge process which mind can grasp. In metaphysics, idealism is directly opposed to materialism—the view that basic substance of the world is matter and it is known primarily through and as material forms and processes. In its epistemology, it is opposed to realism, which holds that in human knowledge objects are seen as they really are—in their existence outside and independently of the mind.
Core Perceptions of Idealism
Idealism is a concept in philosophy that emphasizes that what is known is because of one’s consciousness and that which exists outside of one’s consciousness is all about perception. The Core concept of Idealism theory is famous for its simplification; its application is regarded debatable. Over the years, philosophers have interpreted in different ways. Holmes took it as metaphysics of the thinking act; Betti as a form of hermeneutics; Harris as a metaphysics of democracy; Fogu as a modernist philosophy of history. Gentile theorizes that thoughts can be assumed within the bounds of reality; abstract thinking does not exist. Thoughts cannot be formed outside our known reality because we are the reality that stops ourselves from thinking externally. With accordance to “The Act of Thought of Pure Thought”, our actions comprise our thoughts, our thoughts create perceptions, perceptions define reality, thus we think within our created reality.
An Agenda for Peace
Idealism revolves around the concept that states are logical performers capable of ensuring lasting peace and security rather than turning to war. Idealism is also marked by a prominent role played by international law and organizations in its conception of policy formation. One of the most well-known principles of modern idealist thinking is a democratic peace theory, which holds that states with similar modes of democratic governance do not fight one another.
Wilson’s idealism was a precursor to international relations theory, which would arise between “institution-builders” after World War II. The system of international relations that gave rise to the First World War was capable of being transformed into the more peaceful and just world; that under the impact of the awakening of democracy, the growth of ‘the international mind’, good works of men of peace or the enlightenment spread by their teaching. It was, in fact, being transformed; and their responsibility as students was to help the march of progress to overcome the ignorance, prejudices and threatening interests that stood in its way.
Idealism is a set of philosophical systems that argues that reality is dependent upon mind rather than existing independent of the mind. The idealist conclusion is therefore immediate: that which is known must be in thought and object that was not in thought would not be known.
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