Quaid-e-Azam was the founder of Pakistan. He is considered one of the greatest leaders of the 20th century. During his political career spread over the first half of the 20th century, he single- handed led the Muslims of the Sub-continent and transformed the Two-Nation Theory into reality of an independent Pakistan. Thus he not only altered the course of history and modified the map of the world but also created a nation-state, an act which has remained unparalleled in the history of the world.
Quaid-e-Azam As An Ambassador Of Unity:
On his return from England, Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah started his political career by joining Indian National Congress in 1905. A year later, All-India Muslim League was established in 1906, but he did not join it immediately. Subsequently, events like the Partition of Bengal and its annulment convinced him that Muslims of India had their own political problems. Thus, in 1913 he joined Muslim league in order to work for self-rule in India. He also advocated the cause of Hindu-Muslim unity and succeeded in holding a joint session of Congress and Muslim League in Lucknow in 1916. These efforts earned him the title of the ambassador of Hindu-Muslim Unity.
Resignation From Congress:
During and after the First World War certain events convinced Jinnah that the Hindus were not sincere to the Muslims. Moreover, his belief in constitutional means was totally opposite to the violent methods adopted by Gandhi. Thus in the Nagpur session of the Congress held in September 1920, he opposed the resolution of Non-Cooperation Movement, but Congress passed this resolution. Consequently, Jinnah resigned from the membership of Indian National Congress, and devoted his full energies to the cause of the Muslims of the Sub-continent.
Jinnah was basically an advocate and believed in constitutional methods for the achievement of his political goal. After the first World War, the British Government introduced the Montague Chelmsford Reform in1919.However; the system of Diarchy could not satisfy the Indians. Consequently, in 1927, the British Government appointed a statutory commission under Simon to review the working of reforms. The commission visited India in 1928 and 1929. The Congress and Jinnah League boycotted the commission while Shafi League cooperated with it.
Moreover, in March 1929, Jinnah put forward his famous Fourteen points as the minimum Muslim demands to be incorporated in the future constitution of India. These demands confirmed his political insight because through these demands he succeeded in safeguarding the constitutional rights of the Muslims. His points included one-third representation for Muslims in Central Legislature and separation of Sindh from Bombay presidency. The British Government made Sindh a separate province through the Government of India Act in 1935.
Later on, in 1930 and 1931, Jinnah participated in Three Round Table Conference held in London. Most of the time of these Conferences was consumed in discussing the communal problem. On this occasion Jinnah declared that:
“The first and foremost thing that we have to provide is that the various interests are safeguarded and you cannot possibly frame any constitution unless you have provided safeguard for the rights and interests that exist in India.”
Emergence As A Leader Of Muslim India:
After the death of Sir Mohammad Shafi in 1932 and Sir Fazle Hussain in 1936, the Muslims of the sub-continent looked towards Quaid-e-Azam to lead them in the struggle for Independence. After returning from England in 1934, Quaid-e-Azam had started restructuring the Muslim League. Along with Liaquat Ali Khan and other companions, Quaid-e-Azam toured the sub-continent and established branches of Muslim League in all the important towns. In 1936, a Parliamentary Board comprising of 54 members was constituted. The position of League was strengthened when Congress ministries malfunctioned from July 1937 to October 1939. During this dictatorial rule, the Congress ministries tried to influence Muslim religion, culture, language and learning by introducing textbooks depicting Hindu faith. The Pirpur Report, the Sharif Report and the pamphlet published by Fazlul Haq disclosed the harrowing tales of congress atrocities.
During this period, Quaid-e-Azam led the Muslims wisely and his stature improved with the passage of time. In October, 1937, during the Lucknow session of All-India Muslim League Sir Sikandar Hayat, Maulvi Fazle Haq and Mohammad Saadullah proclaimed Jinnah as their leader.
Two-Nation Theory And Quaid-e-Azam:
Quaid-e-Azam was the pioneer of Two-Nation theory in the sub-continent. He was the first Muslim leader to declare that Muslims were a separate nation from the Hindus. On the basis of this theory, he built the edifice of the demand for Pakistan. He proclaimed, “India was inhibited by two distinct nations-Hindus and Muslims-which could not live together in one State.” He expounded this theory in such detail and with such effect that most Muslims and even some Hindus come to believe in its truth. During his Presidential address delivered on 22nd March, 1940 in the annual session of Muslim League held at Lahore, he declared:
“Hindus and Muslims belong to two different religions, Philosophies, social customs and literatures. They neither inter-marry nor interdine together and indeed they belong to two different civilizations which are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions.”
Subsequently, on the basis of the Two-Nation theory, All India-Muslim League passed its historic Lahore Resolution on 23rd March 1940, in which it (Pakistan) was demanded that geographically contiguous units were demarcated into regions which should be so constituted with such territorial readjustment as might be necessary that the areas in which the Muslims were numerically in majority as in the North-Western and Eastern Zones of India be grouped to constitute Independent States in which constitutional units should be autonomous and sovereign.
Quaid-e-Azam As The Founder Of Pakistan:
Quaid-e-Azam’s strategy of proving Hindus and Muslims as two nations worked wonders. After the passage of Lahore Resolution on 23rd March, 1940, the Muslims of India were charged with the idea of separate Independent country which set a definite goal before them. Henceforward Jinnah emerged as their national hero and the Muslims throughout the country flocked under the banner of Muslim League for the final March for the achievement of Pakistan. The Muslims of India considered Jinnah their sole leader and liberator. The high esteem and importance enjoyed by Jinnah among the Muslims in the forties can be judged from the fact that he was elected the president of Muslim League for continuously eight times in succession from 1937 (Lucknow) to 1944 (Karachi). Thus, through political insight of Jinnah, the Muslims emerged as a strong nation to challenge the monopoly of Hindus.
The march for the achievement of Pakistan continued and Quaid-e-Azam single-handed countered all moves by the British and the Hindus. In 1944, h held talks with Gandhi and further justified his two-nation theory. Gandhi refused to accept his concept but Jinnah persisted with claim that:
“We maintain and hold that Hindus and Muslims are two major nations by any definition or test of a nation.”
The Hindu leaders termed the partition of Sub-continent as the vivisection of their motherland and tried to create all sorts of hurdles in order to block the creation of Pakistan. However, Jinnah remained firm and refused to withdraw his demand for separate independent Muslim state. Thus his strong will supported by the Muslim nation triumphed against heavy odds. In 1945-46 General election, the Muslims voted in the favour of Pakistan. Consequently, the Cabinet Mission was forced to accept the scheme for Pakistan by grouping the provinces into Muslim majority and Hindu majority provinces as three blocks. Later on, Mountbatten Plan of 3rd June 1947 paved the way for the partition of the Sub-continent. Thus on 14th August, 1947 Pakistan emerged on the map of the world as an independent Muslim State mainly through the efforts of Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah. He had indeed altered the course of history, modified the map of the world and created a nation-state.
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