Table of Contents
Definition Of Ideology:
Ideology can be defined as the set of beliefs, especially the political beliefs on which people, parties or countries base their actions.
WHAT IS AN IDEOLOGY?
A political ideology is a system of beliefs that explains and justifies a preferred political order, either existing or proposed and offers a strategy (Institution, processes, program) for its attainment.
An ideology offers an interpretation of the past, explanation of the present and a vision of the future
Ideology is a set of beliefs, values and ideals of a group and a nation. It is deeply ingrained in the social consciousness of the people.
It is a set of principles, a framework of action and guidance system that gives order and meaning to life and human action.
HOW IDEOLOGY EMERGES
When thinking of a nation or a social group is rejected.
An ideology emerges when people feel strongly that they are being mistreated under an existing order, when their status is threatened by fundamental changes occurring in the society, and when the prevailing ideology no longer satisfies them
STEPS OF IDEOLOGY EVOLUTION
- Analysis of current situation
- Creating new thinking
- Legitimate – De-legitimate
- Role of Leadership
IMPORTANCE OF IDEOLOGY
- It is a motivating force
- It provides a common platform.
Ideology Of Pakistan And Two-Nation Theory:
The ideology of Pakistan stems from the instinct of the Muslim community of South Asia to maintain their individuality by resisting all attempts by the Hindu society to absorb it. Muslims of South Asia believe that Islam and Hinduism are not only two religions, but also two social orders that have given birth to two distinct cultures with no similarities.
The ideology of Pakistan took shape through an evolutionary process. Historical experience provided the base; with Sir Syed Ahmad Khan began the period of Muslim self-awakening; Allama Iqbal provided the philosophical explanation; Quaid-i-Azam translated it into a political reality(movement); and the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan, by passing Objectives Resolution in March 1949, gave it legal sanction. It was due to the realization of Muslims of South Asia that they are different from the Hindus that they demanded separate electorates. When they realized that their future in a ‘Democratic India’ dominated by Hindu majority was not safe; they put forward their demand for a separate state.
As early as in the beginning of the 11th century, Al-Biruni observed that Hindus differed from the Muslims in all matters and habits. He further elaborated his argument by writing that the Hindus considered Muslims “Mlachha”, or impure. And they forbid having any connection with them, be it intermarriage or any other bond of relationship. They even avoid sitting, eating and drinking with them, because they feel “polluted”.
The Ideology of Pakistan has its roots deep in history. The history of South Asia is largely a history of rivalry and conflict between the Hindus and Muslims of the region. Both communities have been living together in the same area since the early 8th century, since the advent of Islam in India. Yet, the two have failed to develop harmonious relations. In the beginning, one could find the Muslims and Hindus struggling for supremacy in the battlefield. Starting with the war between Muhammad bin Qasim and Raja Dahir in 712, armed conflicts between Hindus and Muslims run in thousands. Clashes between Mahmud of Ghazni and Jaypal, Muhammad Ghuri and Prithvi Raj, Babur and Rana Sanga and Aurangzeb and Shivaji are cases in point.
When the Hindus of South Asia failed to establish Hindu Padshahi through force, they opted for back door conspiracies. Bhakti Movement, Akbar’s diversion.
Ideology of Pakistan was actually the Islamic Ideology on the basis of which Muslims of the Sub-continent claimed a separate independent Muslim state.
The Islamic Ideology gave rise to Two-Nation Theory according to which the Hindus and Muslims were two distinct nations with their own separate religions, cultures, traditions, manners and languages.
By establishing a separate independent Muslim-State, the Muslims wanted to spend their lives according to the teachings of Quran.
Two-Nation Theory provided the foundation for the Lahore Resolution which demanded a sovereign independent nation for the Muslims.
Sir Syed was the first Muslim leader who put forward the idea of separate religious, cultural, social and political backgrounds of the Hindus and Muslims.
Subsequently, other Muslim leaders particularly Allama Iqbal and Quaid-e-Azam developed the Two-Nation theory on sound footings which led to the creation of Pakistan.
BASIS OF IDEOLOGY OF PAKISTAN
Based on ideals of Islam
Historical experience provided the base; Allama Iqbal gave it a philosophical explanation; Quaid-i-Azam translated it into a political reality; and the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan, by passing Objectives Resolution in March 1949, gave it legal sanction.
It was due to the realization of the Muslims of South Asia that they are different from the Hindus that they demanded separate electorates. However when they realized that their future in a ‘Democratic India’ dominated by Hindu majority was not safe, they changed their demand to a separate state.
Hindu British were exploiting Muslims in India. So Muslims adopted this ideology to save their identity and culture from total elimination.
TWO NATION THOERY
Two-nation concept was based on Nationhood which was there long before Pak Ideology. Muslim Traders – Attackers – Rulers (Qutb Ud Din Abik, Ghaznavi) – Sufis (Al Hajveri, Sheikh Ahmad Serhandi)
Based on fact that Muslims were separate nation having their own culture, civilization, customs, literature, religion and way of life.
Despite living together for more than one thousand years, they continue to develop different cultures and traditions. Their eating habits, music, architecture and script, all are poles apart.
The basis of the Muslim nationhood was neither territorial nor racial or linguistic or ethnic rather they were a nation because they belonged to the same faith, Islam. They demanded that the areas where they were in majority should be constituted into a sovereign state, wherein they could order their lives in accordance with the teachings of Holy Quran and Sunnah of Holy Prophet (PBUH).
The Muslims were put into the backwardness with the help of Hindus. This was one of the outstanding motivations that paved the way to declare the separate identity of nationalism, the Muslim nationalism
Due to British and Hindu exploitation they were forced to safe guard their national and relational identity.
Sir Syed Ahmad Khan is pioneer of two nation theory. The Aligarh movement produced educated leadership who could protect the Muslims’ rights on the Western political lines.
Two Nation Theory means that Pakistan should be a state where the Muslims should have an opportunity to live according to their faith and creed established on the Islamic principals. They should have all the resources at their disposal to enhance Islamic culture and civilization.
There are two major nations in British India. The Muslims are not a community but a nation with a distinctive history, heritage, culture, civilization, and future aspirations. (All India Muslim League)
The Muslims wanted to preserve and protect their distinct identity and advance their interests in India. They wanted to order their lives in accordance with their ideals and philosophy of life without being overwhelmed by an unsympathetic majority.
Initially, they demanded safeguards, constitutional guarantees and a federal system of government with powers to the provinces for protection and advancement of their heritage, identity and interests. Later, they demanded a separate state when neither the British nor the Hindu majority community was willing to offer those guarantees and safeguards
EVOLUTION OF PAKISTAN IDEOLOGY
- British expansion had more deepening impact on Muslims as “The people who were important in history are no longer important” KK Aziz
- Urdu Hindi controversy under Congress leadership in 1867 in Banaras
- Revivalist movements against Muslims – Bakhti, Deen e Elahi, Shuddi and Shanghtan movement; RSS attitude towards Muslims
- Hindu attitude – Partition of Bengal and its repeal
- Political experience of Muslims under congress ministries in 1937-39
AIMS AND OBJECTIVE OF THE ESTABLISHMENT OF PAKISTAN
1. Enforcement of sovereignty of Allah Almighty
a. Quaid said “We do not demand Pakistan to acquire a piece of land, but we wanted a homeland where we could introduce Islamic principles”
2. Establishment of Islamic democracy
a. Quaid at Sibbi in 1948 “It is my firm belief that our salvation lied in following the golden rules of conduct as given by our great law giver, the prophet of Islam. Let us lay the foundation our democratic system on Islamic ideals and practices”
3. Revival of Muslim image and Identity
4. Protection of Muslim culture and civilization
a. Urdu Hindi controversy
b. Shuddi and Sanghtan Movements
5. Two Nation Theory
6. Establishment of a balanced economic system
a. All highly courts and military positions were reserved for Hindus.
b. Agriculture and Industry was dominated by Hindus
c. Islamic system has the benefit for poor as well as rich – Zakat, Ushar
For complete Pakistan Affairs notes click here.