Table of Contents
- 1 Importance of Education:
- 2 Educational Issues:
- 3 Problem of Resources:
- 4 Low Literacy:
- 5 Enrolment and Retention:
- 6 Teachers related issues:
- 7 Examination System:
- 8 Politicization:
- 9 Kinds of Education: Primary
- 10 Distance Education:
- 11 Privatization of Education:
- 12 Military Foundations:
- 13 Modern Technology and Education:
- 14 Concluding Remarks:
Importance of Education:
Education is a key to development for individual, society and state. It shapes natural qualities and talents of the individuals. It has positive relevance to family and society. It also confers citizens’ confidence to deal with environment, a sense of purpose. Education provides a goal orientation and is helpful to others by educating them.
Education provides entitlement to job and professions. It gives effective tanning to the citizens about their rights and duties. It plays a more constructive role in character building of the person and in turn society as a whole.
Education should be integrated to nation building and should be able to transmit the primary values. Education should be responsible for the formation of attitude.
It should transmit socialization among individuals.
Education system is designed according to the ideology of the state and its identity. Education is the indicator of socio-economic development. For the real progress proper educational facilities should be provided. Literacy rate should be enhanced. Trained and qualified human power can make a nation success. Only such educated people can better be equipped to deal with changing situations and challenges of the time. Education provides better understanding of international environment that affects all of us. Islam asks Muslims to get education. Other religions also value education.
From historical perspective Pakistan has made commendable efforts for spreading education since independence. Funding, facilities and free primary education was introduced to enhance student enrolment. Following steps were taken for uplift of education:
It made integral to development planning in all Five Year Plans and Yearly Plans.
Education Commission was established and new Education policies were introduced.
Critical evaluation points out serious issues requiring immediate attention for enabling education to achieve its goals.
Problem of Resources:
Resource allocation for education is far from satisfactory. It is much less than what a large number of countries spend on education, especially those having developed after World War II. Most of these allocations go to salaries and administration.
Fewer amounts are given for infrastructure, facilities of research and development.
In Pakistan literacy rate is 46 per cent. While meaningful literacy is far less. Female literacy is lower. In rural areas literacy is much low.
Enrolment and Retention:
All Children are not enrolled in schools. Drop out at the primary and high school level is very high. The incentive to send children to the school is to retain them there. Poverty and lack of appreciation cause drop out. Not enough schools with proper facilities. Number of schools exist on papers only i.e., Ghost schools.
Shortage of qualified teachers at the lower levels is main cause of less interest of young students towards education. Student-teacher ratio is very high in Pakistan. So the teacher cannot properly treat students. Teachers are not given any incentives for devotion to the profession. Salary and other facilities especially at the lower levels are very disappointing. Training and refresher courses are also inadequate. New techniques of teaching and facilities needed for good teaching should be provided to the teachers.
Examination System remained a problematic issue in Pakistan. How to judge the performance of students is a difficult question. Instead of comprehension and depth of knowledge emphasis is laid on test of memory. Learning is geared to passing the examination. Some people work only at the end of the year and get good marks due to flaw in the system. Some of they use unfair means. Students have were little knowledge of how the papers are actually graded. This becomes a serious problem at the higher levels. Still there is a debate that whether Annual system or Semester system should be adopted.
Student groups have political links with outside groups. Political parties have their sub units in educational institutions, which result in use of violence and threats. This also damages the educational environment.
Kinds of Education: Primary
From class 1 to 5 years is primary stage. Mosque schools are also working on this level. Efforts are being made to make it universal.
It is from class 6 to 8.
It is from class 9 to 10.
It is from class 11 to 12.
It is a university level education for 2 or 3 years for the award of bachelor degree of Science/ Arts.
University, Post Graduate Level:
M. A., M.Sc., M.Phil. and Ph. D. Specialized diplomas and programs are also offered at this level. Colleges are also teaching at Postgraduate level. Now some Colleges are given university status.
Professional educational fields are Medical, Dentistry, Engineering, Business and Commerce are Technical and professional degrees.
For adults who could not get education in their early years adult education is introduced for them.
People do not go to an institution but stay home and get education. This method is useful for people in service and for those living in remote areas. This is a method of Improvement of qualification without actually going to an institution.
It is a Flexible system in which Lectures and tutorial system are used through media. Examples are:
Privatization of Education:
Schools (English medium), Colleges and Universities are introduced in private sector. Some of them are imparting some good quality education but very expensive.
Medical and IT education
National University of Science and Technology
Air Force University
Modern Technology and Education:
Technology education means education of IT, Computers- software and hardware. IT and regular education, Access to knowledge and technical education.
Education in Pakistan could not play a proper role. That’s why Pakistan is much behind of some of the developing countries. The only way to meet the challenges of the time is to provide technical education at all levels. For that purpose spending on education should be raised. Primary education should be universal and women education should be enhanced. Only meaningful education can fulfill the demands of development.
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