Title: Disturbed borders suggest unending wars and threats to human lives
1.1 Border skirmishes lead to antagonism
1.2 Bloodshed over the borders poisons the relationship among countries.
- Why do borders remain disturbed?
2.1 Unspecified demarcation of borders lead to antagonism among countries.
2.2 Cross-border terrorism and proxy wars result in retaliation.
2.3 Economic inequalities among countries. i.e; India-Pak over water.
2.4 Historical rivalries among countries. i.e; Pak-Afghan Durand line.
2.5 Civil warsi.e; Yemen, Syria
- How disturbed borders lead to unending wars
3.1 Disputed regions lead to unending wars among countries. i.e; Kashmir issue, Cyprus conflict, Nagorno-Karabakh conflict.
3.2 Historical rivalries due to unsatisfied demarcation among countries. i.e; Pak-Afghan Durand line, Palestine-Israel conflict.
3.3 Economic disparities among countries. i.e; India use water as weapon against Pakistan and discourages IWT agreement, Israeli settlements in West Bank.
- Disturbed borders – case study of ongoing civil wars in war-torn countries
4.1 Banned militants (ISIL, Al-Qaeda, Taliban) wage war by taking the benefits of war-torn situation of countries. i.e; Afghanistan, Iraq, Syria
4.2 Powerful countries to flex their military muscles use poor countries. i.e; US and Russia backed forces in Syria, Russian invasion in Ukraine
4.3 Military interventions by using the agenda of Responsibility to Protect (R2P). i.e; Libya war, US troops in Afghanistan and Iraq.
- How disturbed borders lead to threat of human lives
5.1 Border skirmishes and cross-border terrorism lead to mass casualties. i.e; Pak-India, Pak-Afghan, Armenia-Azerbaijan
5.2 Ongoing civil wars as powerful countries flex their military muscles lead to refugee and humanitarian crises. i.e; Syrian refugee crisis as the largest one after the WWII, Yemen casualties due to war, droughts and famine.
- International community efforts to ease border tensions
6.1 UNSC resolutions to provide peaceful settlements of disputes. i.e; Resolutions adopted by UNSC since 1946.i.e; Resolutions on Kashmir, Israel-Palestine
6.2 World Bank provides arbitration courts to solve disputes peacefully due to economic disparities among countries. i.e; Indus water treaty (IWT)
6.3 Bilateral and trilateral true deals among countries. i.e; Turkey and Russia to agree on truce deal on Syrian war.
8. Way Forward
8.1 Powerful countries need to put aside their interests and provide solutions to disputes without any biasness.
8.2 International community to deal with banned militant organizations to cease them to wage war in war-torn countries.
8.3 International community to provide solutions on refugee crisis. i.e; millions of Syrian refugees died in Mediterranean Sea as neighboring countries closed their borders for them.
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