In the East
Just after 6 months, a large rebellion broke out in Persia. It was incited by Yazdjard 3. Usman had instituted his young cousin, Abdullah bin Amir as a governor of Basra.
Although young (25), he was a great general and an administrator. He suppressed the rebellion quickly. He himself advanced upon Khurasan where Yazdjard lurked. He captured it, but Yazdjard fled.
The Muslims, by the time suppression was stifled, had conquered Heart, Kabul, Ghazna, Tabaristan, and Azerbaijan.
The outlying territories were still not fully established and defected after the death of Usman until they were reclaimed by Muawiyah.
In Africa and against Byzantines
Muawiyah was a sole governor of Syria. He defeated Byzantines’ attack. His real achievement lay in his naval endeavors. In this way, the hostilities were renewed with Byzantines.
The Byzantines had endeavored to regain Alexandria. They still had upper hand in Naval offence. Umar was to wary to fight on water and detested the idea to lead his armies in seas. Alexandria was won by Amr ibn al-As after Byzantines had gained control of it.
But he was soon dismissed from his position as its governor and Abdullah bin Abi Sarah was elected as a governor. He proved to be an able stateman, administrator, and a general.
He marched against Byzantine possessions in North Africa in Barqa and Tripoli. He defeated them after a bitter fighting. Abdullah bin Abi Sarah was a foster brother of Usman and people criticized him over his appointment too.
Naval war against Byzantines
He was the first Arabian ruler who undertook naval operations.
Muawiyah sought Usman’s permission lead an expedition in seas in the hope of positive response. Usman agreed but on condition that maritime service would be voluntary.
Muawiyah raised a fleet under the command of Abu Qays. He attacked the island of Cyprus, off the Syrian coast in 649.
Byzantines again raised a fleet of 500 vessels and came at the shores of Alexandria. This time the command was under Abdullah bin Abi Sarah. After a fierce battle, Arabs won.
This was crucial since this shattered Byzantine naval supremacy. The Arabs soon wiped out every trace of Byzantines in North Africa.
For complete Islamic history notes click here.