The Makkans were basically polytheist who worshipped stones and objects. Islam, on the other hand, talked of One God – Allah. They also contended that the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) had ulterior motives for personal gains. This is why they tried buying him through offering beautiful wife, house, and lots of money. Moreover, Muslims believed in resurrection which would shake the Makkans status quo. They couldn’t commit adultery, and usury. It should also be noted that for the Makkans, Kaaba was a place that generated a lot of capital because it was a sanctuary that stored 360 idols.
Parties that enjoy from the present conditions resort to extreme measures to keep the conditions same. The Quraishite were an aristocratic class in Arabia. Islam with its message of equality and justice threatened their superiority and authority. Islam set out to replace slavery. It also placed women on equal footings with men. In addition, Islam strived to attain ‘Ummah’ and not petty and small tribes that were a norm in Arabia. If observed with care, one can see Islam was diagrammatically opposite of the Jahiliya period.
Makkah had no central government. And unlike other religions, Islam proclaimed itself as a complete code of life (this is why it is called deen instead of mazhab). Few clans enjoyed greater authority and wealth. They also had hegemony over Kaaba. Banu Hashim was in decline for few years now. Banu Makhzum and Umayya were the real players. They believed the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) was aiming for the political seat. They also cried if Allah were to send his prophet why not from them as well.
The Makkans loved usury. They Big Two also loved the monopoly they had over the trade. They also loved the money generated through Kaaba. With the advent of trade, Makkah was in true sense capitalist because rich was getting richer and poor poorer. But money is the root evil in any problem. Islam’s message was to distance oneself from the riches. It wanted men to contend himself. It wanted no gambling or usury.