Following are the main characteristic of the Educational system under Prophet:
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Education in Pre-Islamic Arabia
Certain institutions did exist. They were mostly poetical and rhetorical though. It is pertinent to note that a large number men in Makkah knew the art of reading and writing. There were few elementary schools here and there. Taif and Makkah had few.
Schools under the Prophet
As we noted earlier, men of Makkah knew how to read or write. The POWs of Battle of Badr were freed on one condition: they had to teach to 10 children each. Since then the literacy rate of Madinah multiplied. Women also used to take classes and sometimes would teach too. The Prophet used to say even the slave-girl should be educated. Over time, every mohalla had its own elementary school at least. At the start, Madinah Mosque was a center for higher learning. The higher learning was mostly limited to Quran and Hadith. The Prophet also sent teachers to remote Bedouin tribes since they resided in remote areas.
Courses and methods of study
The main theme was to mold the character of an individual according to Quran/Islam. They were largely taught Quran and Sunnah. Poetry didn’t have significance as it had in Makkah. After this, they practiced calligraphy, basic math, science laws and etc. importance was also given to physical education. The students were taught archery
and wrestling. This came in handy in battles too. Few companions learnt foreign languages too. This helped them to gain concentration of foreign leaders regarding preaching of Islam.