PAKISTAN AFFAIRS XXII

(NATURAL RESOURCES)
INTRODUCTION:

Natural resources are the invaluable gift bestowed by Allah to a country-play an important role in economic development they provide a stable base for erecting the formidable edifice of country’s economy. The availability of these resources it not the only fact which is important, but actually the proper use and exploitation of the natural resources available for
national development is the real endeavor. The availability of natural resources, their proper use and exploitation, help the nations greatly in over coming their economic problem and assist them to pass their development stages smoothly.

TYPES OF NATURAL RESOURCES:

Forests minerals and energy resources are not the only gifts of nature, animals, land and manpower may also be include in natural resources, climate of a certain region can also be include in the list of natural resources because it greatly helps in creating suitable working
conditions and thus provides opportunities to the individuals to fully exploit the natural.

NATURAL RESOURCES OF PAKISTAN:

Pakistan is greatly endowed by the nature with vast quality of natural resource, but these resources have not been fully utilized. The government of Pakistan has taken adequate measures to explore the hidden resources and to fully utilize them.

POWER ENERGY RESOURCES:

 (coal): it is one of the important energy sources in Pakistan. Coal mining began in the areas presently in Pakistan. The coal area of our country mainly occurred in sedimentary rocks of tertiary age. The coal found in our country is of inferior. Quality, containing high quality of ash and low heat value sulphur. It is mostly used in brick—making, lime—burring kilns, and railway engines and for domestic purposes as well.
 (CRUDE OIL): Pakistan is greatly endowed with oil deposit. The first effort to explore oil, in this region, was made in 1868 when it was drilled near mianwali, Pakistan got four oil producing fielda at the time of independence. Now the production of oil-fields had greatly increased due to discovery and development of new oil fields. The oil and gas development corporation set up in 1961 (ogdc) had efficiently carried out drilling for oil and gas resources besides ogdc, some private companies are also exploring oil in the country. pakistan faced with a serious problem of refining
of the indigenous oil output. Three refinery ltd(Karachi), and attocck refinery of crude oil being drilled in our country.
 (NATRUAL GAS):natural gas was discovered in sui (balochistan) in 1952 during drilling for oil. Additional gas fields came to light during test drilling at khankot, pirkoh, toot, mari, dhulian and meyal etc. natural gas found in pakistan has a high methane. Sui is the biggest gas field in the world.
 (FORESTS):forests play an important role in the economy of a country, they not only provide pinber, fire-wood, medical herbs but also provide a vital support to regulate the supply of waters in the rivers. They also sustain country’s wildlife and provide unlimited recreational facilities. Unfortunately, in Pakistan only 5% area of total cultivated land is under forests. It is too limited when compared with the total land area. The government had been making efforts to increase the area as well as to
improve the productivity under a systematic management. The fresh development corporation was set up in 1976, the corporation launches different ‘LOK FORESTY’ programs with the sole aim to motivate the people at large to bring maximum land under cultivation.
 (CLIMATE):located on at great land-mass, north of tropic of cancer, Pakistan has a continental type of climate characterized by extreme variations of temperature. The areas closer to the snow covered northern mountains are cold whereas the temperature of mild and southem regions is hot isn summer and cold in winters. The country is on the margin of monsoon climate. The rainfall is barely sufficient and thus it possesses
a dry climate. Due to the diversity of climate a large variety of crops is cultivated balancing the agricultural economy of the country.
 (SOIL):the soils of Pakistan belong to dry group having a high proportion of calcium carbonate and are deficient in organic matter. They are generally fertile due to the extensive use of irrigation of waters in some parts of canal irrigation lands areas with ‘Thur’ and ‘kallar’ are found.
 (ANIMAL): Pakistan Is also rich in animal resources. The waters around karachi are rich with sea-food and are considered to be some of the best fishing grounds of the world lobsters, shrimps, sharks, dolphins and other aquatic life exist in plenty. In northern areas, there are majestic arco polo, sheep, Siberian, ibex, blue sheep, snow leopard, brown and black Himalayan bear jackals, fox, wild cats and reptiles.
The bird population shows a rich variety. Thre are over 100 main species of resident birds, of which may sing. The waters of Indus River sustain a rich treasure of water birds.
 (MANPOWER): the total labor force in the country, estimated in 1988-89 was 31 million, according to labor force survey (LFS) the unemployment rate in country was 3.31%. in the country, significance member of employed people work for less than 35 hours and thus ate not fully employed. If these figures are also taken into account then about 14% are unemployed. Like many developing countries, the employment structure in Pakistan in largely based on self-employment, particularly in rural areas.

THE AGRICULTURE
INTRODUCTION:

Agriculture is the pre-dominant sector in the economy of Pakistan. It contributes about 30% to the country’s GDP, provinces employment to 50% of the labor force and also forms 70% of the export earnings. It is the sources of livelihood, directly or indirectly, for about 70% of the rural population. It provides food for our every growing population, and raw material for most of our industries.
Despite its pivotal importance in the country’s economy, our country has not been able to achieve self-sufficiency in agricultural commodities. These are variety of obstacles in the way of agriculture development in Pakistan.

PROBLEMS OF AGRICULTURE

a) FINANCIAL PROBLEMS

The financial problems have proved to be a stumbling block in the way achieving target.
i. INADEQUATE ALLOCATIONS
Government allocations for the agriculture sector are continuously declining. In the second 5 years plan the allocation was 51.8% but in the seventh 5 year plan (89-94) it has been reduced to 8.2% only.
ii. PRICING POLICY
The support process of wheat/ basmati rice, cotton and sugar cane has been fixed much lower than it costs the growers.
iii. RURAL CREDIT
The bulk of rural credit goes to big formers (zamindars) became of normal criteria of financial institution and in this small farmers are discouraged which adversely affect their production and efficiency.

b) RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT PROBLEMS

I. WATER PROBLEM
Due to the scarcity of water, millions of hectors of cultivable land is still lying barren in balochistan, thar, cholistan and north western and western mountain ranges. The canal network of Indus basin is the biggest in the world but, is not being utilizing properly and effectively. The 19% of the available water is lost during conveyance from canal heads to water course heads; another 22% is lost in distribution from water course
heads to farmers. Tube wells are used in 40% areas to supply water to areas where canal water is not available. But we are facing problems in this regard also due to financial difficulties in operating maintaining tube wells in public sector, low efficiency in private sector because of high costs and high rates of fuel and the shortage of electricity.
II. FLOOD
Floods are responsible for heavy losses of standing crops and fertility of
land. Their causes are poor maintenance of bunds, lack of flood canal, inefficient flood information, heavy rain with no drainage system.
III. SALINITY AND WATER LOGGING
The excess of salt in the upper layer of soil is called salinity. The water logging is caused when the continuous presence of salt water, close to the surface plugs up the pores of the upper layer of the soil and checks the atmospheric air to reach the roots of the plants, water logging and salinity retards the growth of plant and decrease the yield. In Pakistan the main causes are seepage of water from canals which raises the water table, no drainage system in irrigated areas and continuous over irrigation of lands.
WAPDA, is early 64s had launched CSARPI program to curb the twin
menace.
IV. EROSION OF SOIL
The upper 17-20cm layer of surface of land is responsible for fertility of land and is known as soil. It contains nutrients essential for plant growth. If these directorates of soil conservation are at work, yet the problem is not overcome completely. There is still a need control soil caused by deforestation, dry weathers, which and water.

c) AGRICULTURAL INPUT PROBLEMS

I. FERTILIZERS
The deficiency of nutrients nitrogen, sulphates, phosphate, potassium, etc in our land because of semi-arid tropical climate is filled by the use of fertilizers reduction of government subsidies, inability to supply adequate quantity of water lack of the dosage information, shortage of fertilizers and increase in prices due to black marking.
II. SEEDS
Improved varieties of seeds are needed to get better response and maximum yield. But in our country, a modern method such as cross-breeding etc is still unconventional.
III. PLANT PROTECTION (pesticides)
Pests and diseases are responsible for 20-30% loss of yield. We have failed to control them because of big cost of pesticides and because of unawareness of the majority of farmers, the proper method of application, dosage and frequency of sprayes.

d) MECHANIZATION PROBLEMS

Mechanization helps a great deal in sowing and harvesting of crops in a
very short span of time and thus reduces post harvest losses. although ADBP provides loans for purchase of tractors and installation of tube wells yet according to and estimate, only one percent (1%) tractors are being used in balochistan. The main hurdle in the way of mechanization is high costs of technology.

e) SOCIAL PROBLEMS

There are certain social problems which are hindering the development of agriculture sector. Due to illiteracy farmers fail to get timely information and are ignorant about the new technologies. Best use of seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, etc, becomes difficult for them. There are other social problems like rural poverty, had health conditions, inadequate and expensive transport system, lack of farm to market roads, exploitation by the middle man, out dated market trends, which affect the system.

f) INADEQUATE AGRI-EDUCATION

No education about agriculture given at secondary level. At graduate level, the syllabus is theoretical rather than practical. There are inadequate funds for research in the fields. The agricultural universities are less in number.

FINDING AND RECOMMENDATIONS:

LAND REFORMS:
In spite of three land reform in 1959, 1972, big land lord are still in defects possession of thousands of acres of land problem should be assessed a fresh and reform should be implemented.

RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT:
Government should be embark projects for the development of three vital natural resources- forests, water and land, aerial photography should be carried out to check the wastage of water of Indus.

TO PREVENT WATER LOGGING AND SLANITY:
Salinity control and reclamation project (SCARP)
Lining of canal.
Use of gypsum


AGRI-TECHNOLOGY:
Genetic engineering

PLANTS PROTECTION:
Pesticides and seeds

CREDITS AND SUBSIDIES:
Finance assistance
Import of machinery

FERTILIZERS:
Better social conditions

FEDERALISM IN PAKISTAN
INTRODUCTION:

In a federal system of government, the powers of the government are divided between the government for whole country and government for parts of the country in such a way that each government is legally independent in its own sphere. The government for the whole
country had its own area of powers and it exercise its authority without any control from the government of the constituent parts of the country, and thee later in turn exercise their powers without being controlled by the central government. Neither is subordinate to other, both are coordinate.
After the emergence of Pakistan as an independent state, the relation between the center and provinces in one of the most complicated issue and challenge in pakistan politics.

A FEDERATION:

A federal state is one in which a number of coordinate states unite for a certain common purpose, similarly, Pakistan was also constituted when muslims majority areas of indo- Pakistan sub continent were limited to form a single state. It was a federation unique in its character since it was established in the name of Islam. After nine year of stalemate and
wastage of time, the population got their first constitution in 1956, which envisaged a federal system of government. Provincial autonomy and constitutions of Pakistan 1956 constitution proved to be short lived and after two years of its existence martial law was proclaimed. The second constitution of 1962 also established a federal system of government. But ayub’s authoritarian rule made it difficult to run the country in the true
spirit of federalism, as a result of which the eastern whig was separated from western, due to growing resentment in 1971.
The people were presented a new constitution of 1973. This constitution also, like the previous two constitutions, proved for the establishment of a federal form of government. In this constitution, which was endorsed by all the major political parties of the time, an effort was made to create and strike and understanding between the units, i.e., the provinces
and the central government. The judiciary was given the power to settle disputes’ arising between the center and the provinces, a council of common interest (CCI) was formed, and most of all comprehensive lists of powers of the center and the provinces were provided for , on the face of it the constitution created an ideal structural framework for the working of a
successful federal system.
However, history is witness to the fact that the running and managing of the federal system has not been without troubles and center province relationship has quite often remained tense for one reason or the other. There are certainly some snags in our system which hamper the smooth, cordial and harmonious working of the federal arrangement.
Causes of center province conflict
i. Strong center: which infringes on provincial autonomy.
ii. economic disparity: economic disparity between center and province distribution of fund/ Revenue/ testile.
iii. distribution of subjects: the constitution provides three list of subjects.
i. Federal list
ii. Provincial list
iii. Concurrent list
The federal and concurrent lists are so exhaustive that hardly any important matter has been kept beyond their scope. On the subjects enumerated in the concurrent list, both federal as well as provincial legislature have the power to enact. In case of inconstancy, the enactment
of federal legislature will prevail as a matter of fact center had complete control on these.
iv. Population – area factor: according to the Punjab’s point of view the distribution of power/ funds should be based on the population. The population on Punjab is 58%. On the other hand balochistan comprises of 46% of total area of Pakistan, most of which is backward, therefore it suggests that while distributing funds, the area factor should also be taken into consideration.

DISTRIBUTION OF TAX-COLLECTION:

According to sindh’s viewpoint, distribution of revenue collected should be done according to the size of taxes collected from each province because most of the industrial units are based in Karachi; therefore sindh is contributing more than any other provinces.

ROYALITY OF PROJECTS:

Constitution of kalabagh dam and royalty of terbela dam has been bone of contention between NWFP, and the federation. Royalty of sui gas is also demanded by the balochistan provinces

NEGLIGENCE TO PROMOTE HARMONY THROUGH RELGION:
Religious sectarianism

INADEQUATE JUDICIARY:
The settle dispute between center and province
POWER OF PRESIDENT:

PROCLAMATION OF EMERGENCY:

According to article 232 of constitution, president is empowered to declare by proclamation of emergency, that a grave emergency exists whereby the security of Pakistan is threatened by war or interned disorder. During such emergency, federal legislature shall have the powers to make laws on the provincial subjects.

FINANCIAL EMERGENCY:

According to article 234, if the president feels that economic life or financial stability of country or any part is threatened, he may proclaim financial emergency. During such emergency federation ear give directions to the provinces to observe principle of propriety.

GENERAL ATMOSPHERE OF DISTRUST AMONG UNITS:

IMPLEMENTATION PROBLEM:

Over the years, it has been observed that federal government has been reluctant to give the provinces their due constitutional share. It has not fulfilled its certain obligations e.g. meeting of N.F.C. and council of common interests (C.C.I.). The formation of national finance commission at an interval of 5 year is required under article 160. But it could not be held from 1974-91.

REMEDIES:

But it doesn’t deeply that the days of federalism in Pakistan are numbered or are over. It was and still remains the most appropriate and perhaps the idea system to run the affairs of the state. It is only that certain concrete steps are required to be taken.
DISTRIBUTION OF SUBJECTS:
Concurrent list should be reduced.
APPOINTMENT OF GOVERNOR:
It should be elected from the provincial assembly instead of having been appointed by the federal government.
Financial autonomy:
The meeting of NFC:
Regular meetings of council of common interests:
Repeal emergency:
Ban on separatist movement:
Ban on armed religious groups:

(ISLAMIZATION IN PAKISTAN)
INTRODUCTION:

The reason later of the emergence of Pakistan was the indian muslims’ desire to preserve and foster Islamic values. It is maintained the implicit in the demand for the Pakistan was the demand of an Islamic state. Pak ideology is based on the ideals of islam which means that Pakistan would be an Islamic state drawing its inspirations from the principles of holy
Quran and sunnah. The people of Pakistan would have an opportunity to live their lives according to their faith and creed based on Islamic principle. They would have resources at their disposal to enhance Islamic culture and civilization because it was the soul purpose of demanding a separate homeland for the Muslims of indo-Pakistan.

QUAID’S VIEWS:

“it is my belief that our salvation lies, In following the golden rules of conduct set for us by our own great law given, the prophet (P.B.U.H) let us lay the foundation of our democracy quaid-e-azam’s views on future constitution of Pakistan are clearly given in the following speech when he said;
“islam its idealism has taught the muslims
Democracy. It has taught the equality of men,
Justice, fairplay to everybody. Pak is nto going
to be a theocratic state, I’m sure that the future
constitution of Pakistan would be democratic
ambo dying the essential principles of islam”

EFFORTS TO ISLAMIZE PAKISTAN:

From the very beginning, our founding failures tried their best given an Islamic constitution to the country. The first great step towards such constitution was “objectives resolution”. It was moved by then P.M liaquat ali khan in the constituent assembly on 7th march 1949 and was passed without any opposition. In this resolution God’s sovereignty was recognized
over whole universe. Principle of Islamic democracy, social justice and rights of minorities were recognized as the guiding principles on which the future constitution was to be based.

ISLAMIC PROVINCES OF 1956-62-73 CONSTITUTIONS:

Seven years after the adoption of the objectives resolution, Pakistan was given its first constitution on 23rd march 1956. The importance of this constitution was that objectives resolution was included in as preamble which gave an Islamic touch to the constitution. Besides, Islamic provisions were continued in the directive principles of state policy. Same was the
case with two other constitutions adopted in 1962 and 1973. There were many Islamic provisions in all these constitutions which designed the country as an Islamic state.
These provisions were that no law shall be passed in Pakistan which would repugnant to the teachings of islam as laid down in the holy quaran and the sunnah; existing laws shall be brought into conformity with such injections, an advisory council of Islamic ideology should be established which would suggest steps and means to the government to enable the muslims of Pakistan to order their lives in accordance with holy quran and sunnah; president and premier should be muslims. In 1973 sovereignty of god was declared principle of democracy.
WHY THESE CONSTITUTIONS FAILED TO ISLAMIZE PAKISTAN:
 Thought there were many Islamic provisions in these constitutions. But they were more in nature of an ideology, and there was no real substance to make the political order a real Islamic one. For example: objectives resolution was in the preamble but the preamble was never made a part of any constitution. It was not enforceable by the courts.
 Political parties and their leaders were never serious towards the process of islamization, so they did not take any measures to make the country a purely Islamic state.
 Due to palace intrigues and imposition of various martial law, the constitution and the institutions were never allowed to work freely toward islamization process.  Due to wide-spread illiteracy in the country, most of the population was not clear in their mind towards true Islamic concept and beliefs. It resulted in the lack of interest on the part of the people towards islamization.

ROLE OF ULEMA AND RELIGIOUS PARTIES:

Though most of the ulema opposed the creation of Pakistan but after its independence. They reconciled with the newly created state and started their struggle to Islamize it. Their early efforts succeed when objectives resolution (1949) included most of their demands. In the mean while they presented their 22 points and pressurized government to include them into upcoming constitution 1956. Many of islamic provision were incorporated in the constitution but soon aijub khan came into power and treated most of the religious parties as antipakistan.
He was more inclined towards west and wanted to westernize the people. At first he didn’t include Islamic provision in the draft constitution but finally he had to surrender before the pressure of the religious parties and incorporated their demand in 1962 constitution. In the following years, ulema’s role was surprised but they he asserted thmeselve when
contested 1970 elections and entered the parliament for the first time they formed strong opposition against bhutto’s government in national ssembly. Due to their pressure Bhutto was compelled to adopt following measures:
 Qadianis were declared non-muslims.
 Islam because state religion.
 Drinking was prohibited.
 Friday was declared as weakly holiday.
There were, no doubt, great achievements religious parties. However, their climax came in 1977, when they started mass-movement against Mr. Bhutto. They succeeded in bringing zia into corridors of power. He was ready to do whatever religiou parties wanted him to do.

ISLAMIZATION UNDER “ZIA-UL-HAQ”:

The previous governments did not take any concrete steps to implement islam in the country. However, with the military rule of zia, the process of nifaz-i-nizam-i-islam was started. He, on the recommendations of the council of Islamic ideology promulgated 5ordance of February 10, 1979 instituting Islamic penalties (hudood) theft, zina, false accusation way, he
tried to change the social and moral order of the society, so as to bring it in more conformity with holy Quran and sunnah.
Hudood law were followed by Islamic shariah benches in every high court and an appellate shariah bench in the supreme court. These benches were empowered to dispose off the eases under hudood law. Besides they could declare any law repugnant to the injunctions of islam. Later on the federal shariah court was established as an independent crouton 26th may

The jurisdiction of previous shariah benches was conferred upon the new court 5 judges and 3 ulema because the members of the federal shariah court. In june 1980, the president issued and other ordinance which imposed zakat on savings and usher on agricultural product these Islamic taxes were imposed to secure economic wellbeing of the poor and to help them become self reliant.
In banking sector interest had been eliminated from domestic transactions 1981. However in 1984-85 profit and loss system (p.l.s)was introduced instead of riba. To assist the process of islamization the government established a law commission headed by the chief justice of Pakistan and council of Islamic ideology if headed by a judge of high court. They used to make recommendations for bringing the laws into conformity
with injections of islam. On the recommendations of these commissions zia issued niazam-irisalat and namus-i-nihaba ordinance, and made Islamic studies a compulsory subject up to graduation. He also gave instructions to make arrangement for performing. Salat in all offices.
Finally zia proclaimed an ordinance on june 15, 1988 which declared shariah as the supreme law of the country with immediate effect.

CRITICISM OF ZIA’S ISLAMIZATION:

 As zia came into power through non-constitutional way so he was in need of support of religious parties. He, therefore, used the name of islam to prolong hi rule. His Islamic punishment were not practically implemented which resulted in law lessen and many other social evil.
 His islamization policy resulted in the bifurcation of Pakistan society on sectarian basis. Since the influence of ulema increased in government they misused it against the teaching of other sects. As a result shia, suni riots took place in many cities of sindh and Punjab.
 His policies could not Islamize, Pakistani society in true spirit. Hudood laws were greatly resented by the woman.

ISLAMIZATION BY NAWAZ (15TH AMENDMENT BILL)

Holy Quran and sunnah shall be the supreme law of the state.The federal government shall be under obligation to take steps to enforce the shariah establish salat, administer zakat, promote eradicate corruption and provide justice according to Islamic principle.Nothing contained in this article shall affect personal laws, religious freedom, traditions and customs of non-muslims and their status of the citizens.The provisions of this article shall have effect any law or judgment or any court

CRITICAL ANALYSIS:

 For the first time holy quran and sunnah shall be supreme law of the land. In previous constitutions only provisions were given but now the complete framework to Islamize the society was given.
 This act accommodated different muslim sect and non-muslim minorities by giving them full freedom in personal and religious matters. In this way pakistan shall not be a theoretic state but it shall be raised above all racial, national and sectarian prejudices. However after implementing says that the government shall be under obligation to take steps to enforce the shariah. It is not certain whether this provision is mandatory or directory. In other words this provision neither gives any time frame within which the government must fulfill these constitutional obligations nor are the
consequence of its failure to do so spelled out.
Article 3 assure that the act would not affect the interests of statuesque while the government has not undertaken any obligation to do anything positive for them.

CAUSES FOR DEMAND OF PAKISTAN
INTRODUCTION:

2.A. suleri gave three main reasons behind the formation of the demand for pakistanhindus and muslim philosophies of life and ways of life were so wide apart from each other that it was impossible for them to live together, muslims were convinced that their economic and social problems could be solved only by an approach to islam, and this was impracticable
until they had a state of their own.

LIAQAT ALI KAHN:
Under lined that once the chief cause of friction-the ambition of majority community to rule over the whole of india was removed, there would be peace and contentment in india.
KARIMBHOY IBRAHIM:
Regretted that the attitude of congress had never taken the muslim into confidence when if gained power. It always wanted to establish hindu raj by introducing vidya mandir, wardha scheme, band-e-matram and other hindu practices and beliefs. Not once in any way had it shown a desire to accommodate muslims.

CAUSES:

(POLITICAL):
 Separate electorate.
 Failure of congress to safeguard muslim interests.
(SOCIAL):- different of hindu living/culture/traditions.
(RELIGIOUS):-
 Muslim hindu ideology.
 Two nation theory.
(EFFORTS OF UNITY FAILED):
 Lucknow pact.
 Khilafat movement.
 Delhi proposal.
 Nehru report(final blow).

(DELAY IN FRAMING OF CONSTITUTION)
INTRODUCTION:-

Pakistan became a new severing state on august 14, 1947 the crown of England remained constitutional head of Pakistan tell the promulgation of 1956 constitution. There are number of reason on account of which, Pakistan took nearly a decade to make her first constitution.
No doubt the history of pakistan’s constitution began with the Lahore resolution of 1940 which first obtain the idea of separate homeland for the muslims of india. Thus the leader of Pakistan freedom movement had short time for framing the primary structure of constitution as compared to the Indian leadership. The process of constitution framing was mainly delayed due to these factors.

BENGALIS’ FEAR OF SUPPESSION:

It was strange that in Pakistani democracy majority was demanding safeguards. Bengalis’ representation in civil/ military bureaucracy was limited. They were being governed by refugees i.e. Punjabi and men from from NWFP. They felt mutual district delayed the process of constitution framing.

ABSENCE OF STRONG POLITICAL PARTY:

Constitution making through democratic process is always difficult. It was all the more difficult for a new country like Pakistan where norms of democracy needed development.
Well-organized political parties did not exist. With the decline of the muslim league, there was no national political party which could fill the gap created by muslim league. These are political parties which satisfy the political demand of people absence of such channel had a negative effect on constitution development.

CRISES OF LEADERSHIP:

The leadership of a country plays a vital role in the political activity of a country. After the death of quaid, there was no leader which could fill the gap. Secondly, most of the ruling elite came from across the border. They needed time for their establishment. This factor also contributed in the delay of constribution making.

CLASH B/W TRADITIONALISTS AND MODERNISTS:-

Ulema in Pakistan were conservative and political cultural of Pakistan was traditional on the country, the leading personalities in muslim league like quaid and Jinnah and liaquat ali khan were the representatives of modern school of thought. modernists’ point of view was that Islamic system of caliphate period was not applicable in mid 20th century. They argued
that they should draw spirit from islam and should work according to the parliamentary system. But traditionalists were not ready to give any concession to them. They argued that islam was complete code of life and could be introduced immediately. In order to bring compromise between them, framers of constitution needed time which delayed the process
of constitution making.

CONTROVERSY OVER THE FEDERAL STRUCTURE OF CONSTIUTION:-

Pakistan did not possess single language, nor did it possess uniform culture. therefore the model of federalism was suitable for Pakistan in 1947. But the lack, of homogeneity among the different sectors of the population, i.e. Punjabis, Bengalis, sindh, etc, created problems for federal structure. The framers of the constitution had great problem to satisfy who demanded
maximum autonomy for the provinces with a weak center and those who favored a strong federal central government with provinces enjoying limited autonomy.

SEPARATE OF JOINT ELECTIONS:-

Under the system of separate electorate, the voters are divided on religious bases. The problem of separate of joint electorate took considerable time in the debate of the first constituent assembly. The novel situation in Pakistan was that while in undivided india, the separate electorates were demanded by the minority groups in Pakistan they were opposed by upper class hinudus who constituent one of the minorities. Bengali muslims also opposed it. The main reason for the opposition by upper class hindus was that separate electorate for depressed class hindus world in danger their privileged position.

CONCEPT OF ISLAMIC STATE:-

Pakistan was found so that the muslims could have a state of their own. But was this to be an Islamic state? If it was, what did this tern actually mean? These question were debated inside and outside the constituent assembly. Different groups held divergent views about the concept of Islamic state, thus, it was not easy for the framers of the constitution to produce such
an Islamic constitution which could satisfy different groups holding divergent views regarding the structure and nature of Islamic state.

NATIONAL LANGUAGE:-

Pakistan was a multi-bilingual state, there was a fundamental difference between east and West Pakistan in regarded to language. In East Pakistan Bengali was spoken and in West Pakistan Punjabi, sindh, balochi and pushto. Urdu was accepted as the common language of the whole region. It had achieved a symbolic position during the freedom movement. Since
the episode of urdu-hindi controversy, Muslim did their best to protect Urdu. The problem was that there should be one national language (Urdu) or any other (Bengali) should also be recognized as state language. Quaid and liaquat Ali khan was not willing to give Bengali status of national language. On the other hand Bengalis refused to accept Urdu as national
language.

CLEAVEGES WITHIN RULING ELITE:-

The power elite that emerged soon after the emergence of Pakistan were the middle class professional groups like lawyers. Civil servants and big landlords mostly from Punjab and sindh. This lose coalition had been brought to power by Muslim nationalism. This heterogeneity created difficulty for them to come on one point in order to make a constitution.

LEGISLATURE’S LACK OF INTEREST:-

After the death quaid-e-azam members of constituent assembly gave less time to the assignment of constitution framing. In its seven years life it met only for 116 days the average attendance ranging only from 37 to 56 out of the total 76 seats.

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