PAKISTAN AFFAIRS XVIII

KHILIFAT MOVEMENT
INTRODUCTION:

The institution of khilafat has been coeval with islam. The deviation of muslims of india to the khilafat was one of the basic features of the political life earner proved during the Balkan wars and 1st world war certain developments beyond india were disturbing the muslimsof sub-continent. The ottoman empire was decaling in the beginning of 20th century
and other european countries seemed to be lent upon grabbing the European parts of the turkey.
In 1913 balkan states revolted against turkey. The Indian muslims psychologically were intensely attached with turkey because it was the centre of khilafat, although they did not own any political allegiance to khilafat yet they considered him as the rallying force for the muslims
unity. after being deprived of power, Indian muslims mentally compensated themselves by having spiritual links with the Turkish empire.

ORIGIN OF THE MOVEMENT:

Turkey had chosen to fight on the side of germany against allied power. The british government after declaring war against turkey promised Indian muslims that the sanctity of the holy places will be respected. Status of caliphate would be respected and ottoman empire would be given lack its possessions at the end of war.

VIOLATION OF PROMISE:

After the end of war treaty of severs was concluded whose harsh terms made it clear that the vicarious allies were determined to destroy the Ottoman Empire. To Indian muslim, treaty appeared to be a deliberate attempt to exterminate the political power of islam by the
christian west. ROWLATT ACT.JALLIANWALA TRAGEDY AND HINDU MUSLIM UNITY: A security act in 1919, known as Rowlett act was passed which gave arbitrary powers of arrest and trial to the government these acts aroused widespread agitation. First session of khilafat congress was held in delhi in November 1919 and muslims were asked not to participate
in victory celebration to boycott. British goods and start no cooperation women gandi, who was also present in the session and offered hindu cooperation with regard to khilafat institution,

MUSLIM DELEGATION VISIT EUROP:

Maulana Muhammad ali jauhar led a delegation to Europe in march 1920 to muster support for khilafat cause in to appease british government of muslim grievances and resentment. As british prime minister lord George was implacable enemy of turkey, the delegation returned empty handed in October 1920.

MOVEMENT GAINS MOMENTUM:

During Muhammad ali absence from india the movement gained momentum. The participation or treaty of severe brought the movement and its full swing. Ulema pronounce fatwa:
A fatwa was pronounce by ulema in favor of no cooperation which lad a marked influence on the movement ulema also declared sub-continent as dar-ul-harab and asked muslims to start hijrat movement maulana Muhammad ali in the mean time of tour the whole subcontinent with gandi and azad.

BYCOTT OF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION:
SUSPENSION OF PAYMENT OF TAXES:
MUSLIMS RETUREND THEIR TITLES:

Student played a vital role in the movement. They boycott the government educational institutional institution. In Calcutta about three thousand student went on strike. lawyers boycotted the courts. Going to jail become a fashion. People denied paying taxes to government and boycotted british goods. People and prominent figure returned then titles back to the british government.

HIJRAT MOVEMENT:

People started mass migration to Afghanistan to strength in the khilafat movement. Thousand of muslim fails into the trap laid by Gandhi. Hijrat movement spread form sindh to NWFP. Thousand of people lost their lay and their homes under the leadership Gandhi.

KHILAFAT CONFERENCE SESSION KARACHI:

In july, 1921 AIKCC met in Karachi maulana Muhammad ali precedent was the session and delivered his famous Karachi speech. He urged the muslim solider to live their and boycott military services.

MOPLAY UPRISING-CRICKS HINDU MUSLIM UNITY:

Mop lay’s of south India were religious and emotional people government wanted to keep them out of non cooperation. Section 144 was imposed in mop lay dominated area. They arose against British Hindus acted as species of the government as a consequence mop lay also acted on Hindus. Mop lay were severely botched. The Hindus press expressed its utter satisfaction over the punishment meted out to mop lay which caused mutual resentment among Muslim.

KARACHI TRIAL OF ALI BROTHERS:

Ali brother were returned for two year for their role in the khilafat movement. It caused of leadership gap in the movement.

INCIDENT OF CHURA CHORI-CALLING OFF OF MOVEMENT:

On Feb, 5,1922 at chora churi, village in UP,22 policemen were burnt alive by the furious mob and all of a sudden Gandhi called off the movement without consulting any muslim leader, he was bitterly criticized for his betrayal act behavior because his national volunteers were responsible for the act.

ABOLITION OF KHILAFAT:

The institution of khilafat revealed a dead blow under the leadership of Mustafa kamal Ataturk, who wanted to make turkey an new state as a modern state. Thus they deposed khalifa and abolished sultanate. Now khalifa abdul majeed had no temporal power and was exiled on march 2, 1924, this was the end of the institution of khilafat. Indian muslims were stunned by the decision.

GANDHI’S ROLE:

Gandhi’s role in khilafat had evoked widespread controversy among various histories. Some openly said that he was sincere with the khilafat cause other accused him of causing maximum harm to muslims solidarity. They write “his aim was to persuade muslims to leave muslim league and he succeed in destroying muslim’s political organization. Thus muslim
lawyers boycott courts, student and teachers deserted schools and colleges. Even the migration was a trap set by Gandhi. In the nut shell, gandhi’s role in the movement is open to question.

JINNAH AND KHILAFAT:

He considered the scheme as impracticable. He questioned the wisdom of with standing children from schools and colleges.

CRITICAL ANALYSIS:

This movement is one and the only of its kind which bore the imprint of hindumuslim unity. Its failure shattered all hopes or hindu muslim unity. The muslms got fairly that they would gain by standing alone than adhering to the schemes of the hindu. The muslim political consciousness evoded during the movement, convinced them that they were not a minority but a nation. Khilafat movement became an instrument of creating political consciousness among the mulsim masses. It produced broad based leadership and taught the techniques of organizing a mass movement to the muslims. These proved great assets in the struggle movement for pakistan.
Thought t khilafat movement failed to achieve it main objective yet it had some redeeming aspects. It was the first movement which united the Indian muslims on one platform.
It was the first mass movement which practically organized muslims and proved instrumental for Pakistan.
Khilafat movement also made muslims aware of the real intentions of the british and they felt the need to stand on their own leg rather than relying on others. It also established the fact that the dream of educate middle class hindus and muslims for political unity was only a pipe dream. It created a permanent wedge between the hindu and the muslim which could not be
bridge over. However, khilafat movement had adjusted religion into politics. Gandhi felt by supporting the khilafat movement hindus would peace muslims in considerable ineptness and their mass strength could be exploited for the freedom of india. But such partnerhip went to winds by
hostile circumstances.Discontinuation of hind muslim unity.Moplah incident Chora churi incident Non-cooperation movement was abundant suddenly.Turkey’s abolition of khilafat preaching.Detention ali brothers.

RESULTS:

Educational loss

Muslims civil servants resigned from jobs.

Disastrous migration results.

Movement was followed by communal riots.

Hindu muslims unity was shattered.

Facts-muslims were an active nation.

Muslim ulema in politics.

Disappointment of muslims.

Show of hindu motility.

Political awareness among muslims.

Withdrawal from elections of 1920.

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