The lucknow pacts of is of outstanding importance in the development of Indian muslim nationalism for two reasons. It was the first hindu muslim compact in modern Indian history and in the hopes of several leaders on both side was expected to lay the foundation of a permanent united action against the british. It was also the first and the only occasion when the muslim not only conceded separate electorates of muslim representation in different provincial legislature and at the center.
EARLIER EFFORT OF RAPPORACHMENT BETWEEN THE TWO:
In 1910, hakeem ajmal khan, chairman of reception committee of muslim league stressed the need for improvement of relation with the fellow inhabitations. There were other efforts also made but without any tangible results.
CIRCUMSTANCES WHICH PROMOTED THE NEED FOR UNITY:
The annulment of partition of Bengal was a jolt for muslims and it shattered the muslim confidence in the british.Certain events in the Islamic worlk, like anglo-russian agreement with regard to iran and Balkan war confirmed muslim suspicions about the hostility of west toward muslims.The COMRADE of maulana Muhammad ali and ALHILAL of abdula kalem azad
were the leading newspaper which were infusing new spirit in muslims about their identity.Reluctance of british to great official status to Aligarh muslim university compelled the muslims to join hand with the hindus against the british. Muhammad ali Jinnah at that juncture was ardent champion of hindu-muslim unity . lucknow pact was an example of Jinnah’s sagacious statesmanship and a bridge to cover the gap between hindu and
He and his lther colleagues succeeded in persuading both congress and muslims to hold their annual session in Bombay 1915. A resolution moved by Jinnah in the Bombay session calling organizations. Similarly congress also expressed its desire have an understanding on political issues with the muslim league. Both the parties agreed to hold a joint meeting in lucknow.
JOINT SESSION OF 1916:
Congress and muslim league held their joint session at lucknow in 1976. The congress adopted the new scheme of reform on 29 December and the league on 31st.
FEATURES OF THE PACT:
Provinces should given the maximum. Administrative and financial autonomy.4/5 members of the provincial legislatures should be popularly elected and the rest should b nominated.He elections should be held on the basis of general adult franchise.½ of the members of the central and provincial government should be elected by the members of their respective legislature councils.The governor general and the governments would be bound to the resolutions passed by their respective legislative councils. However the governor general would be authorize to put such resolution off for not more than a year.The secretary of the state should be given the same powers as were enjoyed be the secretary of state for other colonies.The executive and judiciary should remain separate from each other.
PROVISION ABOUT COMMUNAL ISSUE:
the muslim league and the congress should jointly demand for the establishment of complete self government in india.The muslims should be given separate reserved seats in the legislature with the right of separate electorate.Any private resolution affection a particular community should require ¾ majorities of the members of that community for its advancement in the council.Muslim league withdrew from the claim that muslim were in majority in Punjab and Bengal.
IMPORTANCE OF THE PACT:
The lucknow pact prepared the ground for political collaboration among the muslim and the Hindus and enables two peoples to put forward a joint demand before the british government.
To muslims it conceded three advantage:
Separate electorates in the various legislative and representative bodies.
Weight age in province where they were in minority.
And the provision that o non official bill affecting their position could be passed by any of the legislators if ¾ of the muslim members of the house were opposed to it. No doubt, the acceptance of these principle, particularly of separate electorates had very great importance for the future of the muslims but the pact was by no means a one sided affair. The muslims had indeed paid a big price, of losing majority in Bengal and Punjab to
obtain these concessions. The scheme came up for examination mr. montague and lord Chelmsford and most of its recommendations of fundamental nature were rejected by them. However the only part
of the scheme which was adopted was the communal scheme and even this was not adopted in its entirety.
The lucknow pact not only hastened the important policy announcement by the british government on 20th August 1917 but in certain important respects. For the congress it meant much because the muslim support gave it added strength vis-a-via the british government.
The congress who had been scandal the muslim league hitherto now acknowledged it as the only reprehensive party of the muslim of the sub-continent.
Quaid-e-azam was the principle architect for the lucknow pact and was hailed as the ambassador of the hindu-muslim unity by saroni naido K.B saud said, “the hindu muslim accord of lucknow was the high water mark of the hindu-muslim unity”. Most of the principle of the lucknow pact were later incorporated in the government of india act 1919.
The lucknow pact was hall mark in the political history of india because on one hand the demand for complete self government brought the muslim in the face of the british government and on the other hand they succeeded in getting the right of separate electorates lucknow pact in its real sense was an experiment to integrate hindus and muslim in political grounds.
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