PAKISTAN AFFAIRS VIII

ALIGARH MOVEMENT AND SIR SYED AHMED KHAN
INTRODUCTION:

Sir Syed Ahmed khan-a prophetic revivalist and a man of predatory analysis who emerged at the time when Muslims were under the narrow of socio-economic-religio-politics circumstances.
“Since the war of independence the muslims of india were facing
strange circumstance and passing a miserable life. Although both hindu and muslims fought for liberation, but the heavy hand of the british fell more on muslims than on muslims than on the hindu”, says Jawaharlal Nehru in his autobiography.
The consequences of 1857 war had reduced Muslims to a backward
nation—“education was their miserable politics was an enigma and religious was an obsession”
In this darkest hour of the Muslim national life, the life of sir syed Ahmed
khan because multidimensional since him has to provide strength to the Muslims of India for all the frontiers. To him, education was the foundation on which to build the super structure of this religious, social and political ideas. He considered education to be the panacea for all ills of his community.

SIR SYED CRUSADE FOR THE MUSLIM UPLIFT:

The great leader set himself to the gigantic task of alleviating the miserable
toil of the Muslim community. His task was by mean an one-on one
hand he had to convince the british authorities that nobody ever panned the mutiny and that, at any rate the muslims responsibility for its mass butcheries was mollifiable and on the other hand to dispel and fanatical belief of the muslims that western educations was inimical to their faith.

EDUCATIONAL WORK:

The educational set back of Muslims was because of the fact that they were inimical to western education. Learning English and acquire western knowledge went against their pride and they thought that the education saturated with Christianity might corrupt their views.
Sir Syed intellectually fought against all tendencies and attitude with daring initiative. He provoked a new psyche in their minds and brains. He washed their brains thought his speeches, articles and pamphlets. Keeping in view the modern education in his mind. Sir Syed established a scientific society in ghazipur (1864) and muradabad (1859) scientific society. It
translated number of valuable books in ideal languages. His visit to England in 1869 was purely to study English education institutions. On his return, he published a monthly journal tahzeeb-ul-akhlaq to bring home to the Muslim the need for liberalizing their religious thoughts. Finally in 1875 he laid the foundation of Mohammedan anglo-oriental College. At Aligarh.
After the model of oxford and Cambridge, this converted to a university after his death. The college was the birth place of Ali garh movement and re-aimed the center of Muslim political activities throughout the history of paikstan movement. The foundation of Mohammedan educational conference in 1886 intensified Aligarh movement and promoted education and social reformation of Muslim.

RELIGIOUS REFORMATION OF MUSLIM:

In religious sphere, he stood as a rational philosopher. He argued that the revealed truth could be understood best through reason. The revelations of physical science could not be ignored in the understanding of religion. He attempted to rationality interrupt Islamic ideas and concept through the dictated of modern times. In this way he brdges the gulf between
rational patterns of religious thinking. Thus he engineered the attitude of rapprochement between the traditional and neo-islamism because of his rational ideas he was charged “infidel” or heathen. Nevertheless his services to the cause of Islam cannot be denied. His detailed reply in the form of essays to the blasphemous book of William moors “life of
mohammeddan” was a great service to Islam. His essays were translated into Urdu and were published with some addition under the title of khutbat-e-ahmedia. He wrote exegeses of quran. He attacked the blind followers of Islam which had given ways to unwise convention,
corrupt customs and evils. He felt the necessity of ijtihad in every age. He opposed the conventional type of piri-muridi and regarded it as the fountain of many evils.

SOCIAL SERVICES:

In the dimension of social life, the stood and ardent advocate to simplicity and austerity, honesty and integrity. In the second half of 19th century, Muslims of the sub-continent were suffering from different social evil-like literacy, disunity, jealousy, greed, pride and worship of past and indifference to present etc. sir syed Ahmed khan suggested means and
ways to do away with these evils.
He advised the Muslims to take agriculture and trade ads professions and in order to solve their problem they should use their own wisdom and expend on themselves. He stressed on the need of national dress and he was the first who introduced it in Aligarh College.
In his celebrated magazine tehzeeb-ul-akhlaq, he preached the virtues of social ethics that a Muslim could better derive from western social life. He taught the people to accept what was sound and attractive in European manners and social life. The magazine played a very important
role in improving the morality of the Muslims.
In the magazine, AKHAAM-I-TA’ AM-I-AHLEKITAB, sir syed discussed the etiquettes of eating and dining in islam and made it clear that it was not up-islamic to cat with a nation. Christians who were the bearers of the holy book.

POLITICAL SERVICES:

Sir Syed had perceived with his farsightedness that if the exciting tension between Muslims and British continued, Hindus would get advantage of it and as a result Muslims would be lost in the darkness of obscurity for ever. Thus to promote understanding between the ruler and the ruled, sir syed wrote a bold pamphlet on the causes of the Indian revolt.
Whose pith and soul was that the estrangement between government and the governed led to the Indian mutiny and hence the Muslims were not entire responsible for the revolt of 1957.
In the “loyal mohammedan of india” he described the sincere services of the Muslims to the British government and defends them against the charges sedition and disloyalty. He also established british Indian association” under the same purpose. He pleaded for the inclusion
of the Indian in the legislature council in order to represent the views of their fellow beings.
Sir Syed was the first mind whose prophetic foresight firstly visions the facts of the two nation theory. He said that in India, Hindus and Hindus and Muslims were two different nations, having their civilization culture, history, tradition, and everything else quite different from each other. To him since Hindus and Muslims were two separate nations so their interest
in political forum cannot be evolved altogether. In his view, the muslims in choosing their political priority should prefers their loyalty to british first by keeping themselves aloof from the congress and should depend on their own strength. He did not belief in western democracy, which gave authority to majority. In a country like India where Muslim were in minority.
He electorate, and opposed the participation of the Muslims in congress. Sir Syed, thus unconsciously performed ground work for national freedom of the muslims and for a separate homeland for them in the sub-continent.
To conclude his political activities gave great strength to muslims. He advocated the aloofness of the muslims from politics since they were educationally and economically background.
To him, their involvement in politics should be matured by the time until they have brought themselves up to the level of hindus in prosperity and modern education.

CONCLUSION:

Sir syed’s contributions to the muslim renaissance in india were unrivalled and unparallel. He inculcated self-confidence in his people. The muslims were under a cloud; he removed from them the stigma of disloyalty and tries to rehabilitate them with their rulers. He gave them a modern operandi which was not to their present but to their future. Hi greatness
lies that he struggled to get muslims out of frustration and provided a firm foundation on which those who came later could build with confidence.

CRITICAL ANALYSIS:

Nevertheless, his political philosophy of co-operation with british had serious limitations, his advocacy of uncritical acceptance of western education and thought could not provide a firm foundation for building up a nation with a well defined entity, and his concept of religious truth was narrow and un philosophical, yet at the time when he advocated these
ideas, they were opportune and saved the muslims from economic, educational and philosophical inertia and form stagnation and even annihilation.
“people say sir syed set up a college, but he made a nation” Dr.Maulvi Abdul haq

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